Sperm competition and sexual selection

@inproceedings{Birkhead1998SpermCA,
  title={Sperm competition and sexual selection},
  author={Tim R. Birkhead and Anders Pape M{\o}ller},
  year={1998}
}
General Themes: G.A. Parker, Sperm Competition and the Evolution of Ejaculates: Towards a Theory Base. A.P. Moller, Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection. W.G. Eberhard, Female Roles in Sperm Competition. J. Wright, Paternity and Paternal Care. Taxonomic Treatments: L.F. Delph and K. Havens, Pollen Competition in Flowering Plants. D.R. Levitan, Sperm Limitation, Gamete Competition and Sexual Selection in External Fertilizers. N.K. Michiels, Mating Conflicts and Sperm Competition in… 
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN FEMALE SPERM CHOICE VERSUS MALE SPERM COMPETITION: A COMMENT ON BIRKHEAD
TLDR
Female mating propensity contingent on sexual cannibalism in sagebrush crickets, Cyphoderris strepitans: a mechanism of cryptic female choice in the scorpionfly Harpobittacus nigriceps.
6 – Sperm competition and sperm phenotype
TLDR
This chapter reviews recent empirical and theoretical advances to discuss various ways in which sperm competition may shape the evolution of sperm and ejaculate traits.
Sperm competition and male mating tactics in the bitterling fishes
TLDR
It was shown that males were highly sensitive to sperm competition, ejaculating at a higher frequency and subsequently becoming more sperm depleted where sperm competition was high, and the timing of ejaculates was found to be crucial, with a peak in sperm concentration within the mussel mantle cavity 30 seconds after ejaculation.
Sexual behavior, reproductive physiology and sperm competition in male mammals
TLDR
Relationships between mating systems, relative testes sizes and sperm morphology, phallic morphology, circulating testosterone levels and sexual behavior in male mammals are analyzed and reviewed.
Sperm competition affects sex allocation but not sperm morphology in a flatworm
TLDR
It is concluded that M. lignano may either be incapable of adjusting the sperm morphology in a phenotypically plastic way and/or that there might be no benefit of phenotypic plasticity in sperm traits in this species.
Of mice and sperm
  • T. Pizzari
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2006
TLDR
The work by Gomendio et al. (9) in this issue of PNAS reveals that sperm competition may also have shaped the evolution of sperm function in eutherian mammals.
Experience of mating rivals causes males to modulate sperm transfer in the fly Drosophila pseudoobscura.
TLDR
The response to rivals in a sperm heteromorphic species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, is tested, measuring the behavioural response and sperm transfer and, crucially, relating these to short-term fitness and suggests that the evolution of parasperm in flies was not driven by sperm competition.
Experimental Ecology and Geobotany Sexual selection, sperm competition and sperm expenditure in a freshwater crayfish species
TLDR
Four experiments conducted on a freshwater crayfish species (Austropotamobius italicus) are summarized, aiming to analyze the variation of male sperm expenditure and behaviour of both sexes in relation to female status and male secondary sexual traits.
Small and variable sperm sizes suggest low sperm competition despite multiple paternity in a lekking suboscine bird
TLDR
Low sperm competition is detected in the Lance-tailed Manakin, indicating that sperm number rather than sperm morphology may be a major postcopulatory mediator of male reproductive success in this species, and the first thorough quantification of intraspecific sperm variability in a suboscine passerine.
Experimental Evidence for the Evolution of Numerous, Tiny Sperm via Sperm Competition
TLDR
Paternity success across 77 two-male sperm competitions shows that males producing both relatively small sperm and relatively numerous sperm win competitions for fertilization, providing direct experimental support for the theory that sperm competition selects for maximal numbers of miniaturized sperm.
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References

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Parental investment and the control of sexual selection: can sperm competition affect the direction of sexual competition?
  • L. Simmons, G. Parker
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1996
TLDR
Variations in the levels of sperm competition experienced by males with different females within a species may also promote facultative optima for times out (spent in sperm replenishment or in paternal care) which may affect male PRR, though less obviously because the mean PRR may not be greatly affected by adaptive variation.
Sperm competition or sperm selection: no evidence for female influence over paternity in yellow dung flies Scatophaga stercoraria
TLDR
It is argued that a knowledge of the mechanism of sperm competition is essential so that male effects can be controlled before conclusions are made regarding the influence of sperm selection by females in generating non-random paternity.
Sperm competition games: sperm size and sperm number under adult control
  • G. Parker
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1993
TLDR
‘raffle principle’ sperm competition games in which both size and number of gametes can be varied strategically under control of the diploid parent do not affect the prediction of previous models that no component of sperm size should evolve for provisioning the zygote.
Ejaculate dynamics in butterflies: a strategy for maximizing fertilization success?
  • P. A. Cook, N. Wedell
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1996
TLDR
This study is the first to quantify eupyrene and apyrene sperm numbers in relation to spermatophore mass, mating history and larval diet, and suggests that males maintain sperm numbers when resources are limited, prioritising fertilization success over investment in offspring.
Sperm competition games: sperm size and number under gametic control
  • G. Parker, M. Begon
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1993
TLDR
Examination of sperm competition games in which both size and number of gametes in an ejaculate can be varied strategically, but under the control of the haploid sperm suggests size and other morphological variation of sperm may sometimes reflect the result of conflict between different mutational types under haploid expression, and their conflict with diploid expression.
Sperm Utilization Strategies in Nonsocial Insects
TLDR
It is suggested that females often largely determine the optimal male strategy which provides the optimal sperm displacement pattern for the females, and that selection on males independent of selection pressures on females is postulated to exert a major influence on the sperm precedence pattern of a population.
Female reproductive biology and the coevolution of ejaculate characteristics in fish
TLDR
It is found that sperm numbers increase with ova numbers among externally fertilizing species, fitting the predictions of theoretical models, however, sperm numbers are apparently not related to ovum size.
Sperm competition in mammals: a comparative study of male roles and relative investment in sperm production
TLDR
Comparisons of intraspecific relationships between body size and testis size in seasonal and continuous breeders support the predictions derived from the ESS models of sperm competition.
Sperm competition games: raffles and roles
  • G. Parker
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1990
TLDR
Evolutionary games in which two males mate with the same female are examined by using an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) approach, which depends critically on the information available to the two competitors, and whether they occupy roles (of first or second to mate) randomly or non-randomly.
Associations between body size, mating pattern, testis size and sperm lengths across butterflies
  • M. Gage
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1994
TLDR
The results suggest that sperm competition in butterflies selects for increased investment in spermatogenesis, and specifically longer fertilizing sperm, which are not selected to be minimally sized to maximize numbers for a purely raffle-based sperm competition mode.
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