Minor nutrients are critical for the improved growth of Corylus avellana shoot cultures
Residual nutrients from Murashige and Skoog medium were analyzed following a 5-wk multifactor experiment. Plant density, sugar concentration, and plant growth regulators (benzyladenine and ancymidol) were examined using four genotypes of daylily (Hemerocallis) to determine which factors most influenced nutrient use. Active nutrient uptake was observed for 11 nutrients (potassium, sodium, copper, phosphorus, iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, boron, sulfur, and zinc) with lower concentrations in spent medium than in the tissue water volume (fresh-dry mass expressed as mL H2O). Two patterns of nutrient use were visualized by correlative analysis of nutrient uptake. Greatest growth lowered plant nutrient concentrations of potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, and copper in all genotypes, and luxuriant uptake was indicated with least growth. Potassium, sodium, iron, and copper concentrations in plant dry matter were equal to or exceeded what is observed in vigorously growing nursery plants. However, phosphorus concentration in plant dry matter was low enough to be considered deficient when compared to Hemerocallis plants in nursery production. With a second group of nutrients (calcium, magnesium, manganese, and boron), the genotype, “Barbara Mitchell” lacked active uptake and was deficient. Calcium concentration was low in all plants compared to Hemerocallis grown under nursery conditions (“Barbara Mitchell” was the lowest concentration) despite active uptake by the other three genotypes—“Brocaded Gown,” “Mary’s Gold,” and “Heart of a Missionary.” Magnesium concentration in these three genotypes was low enough in vessels with greatest growth to question its adequacy at high densities. Increased sucrose in medium reduced the dry matter concentrations of all tested nutrients. Plant growth regulators had less impact on nutrient use than genotype and plant density. Nutrient uptake may be an important physiological component of genotypic variation.