Spectral characteristics of speech at the ear: implications for amplification in children.
39 3- to 6-yr.-old children counted to 10 or recited the alphabet with normal auditory feedback, and delays of 150, 350, and 550 msec. There were no age differences. In addition to affecting rate of speech, delay differentially influenced the prosody, intelligibility, and content of utterances. For both tasks and all delay intervals, delay slowed speaking and produced more prosodic disturbances than no delay. More disturbances of intelligibility occurred at the 350- and 550-msec. delays than under no or 150-msec. delay. Disturbances in the content of counting were greater than in the no-delay condition but did not differ across delays. For alphabet recitation, disturbances in content under delay were greater than under no delay and were greater at 350 and 550 msec. than at 150 msec. Thirty-four children lost track of what they were doing; 10 articulated confusion. Children as young as 3 years of age concurrently self-monitor their speech for content.