Speech Acquisition in Older Nonverbal Individuals With Autism: A Review of Features, Methods, and Prognosis

@article{Pickett2009SpeechAI,
  title={Speech Acquisition in Older Nonverbal Individuals With Autism: A Review of Features, Methods, and Prognosis},
  author={Erin J. Pickett and Olivia Pullara and Jessica O’Grady and Barry Gordon},
  journal={Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology},
  year={2009},
  volume={22},
  pages={1-21}
}
Individuals with autism often fail to develop useful speech. If they have not done so by age 5, the prognosis for future development has been thought to be poor. However, some cases of later development of speech have been reported. To quantify and document the nature of later speech development and the factors that might be important for prognosis, we reviewed the extant literature. We searched both manually and electronically, examining all literature with at least an English-language… 
Promoting communicative speech in minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder.
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    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 2014
TLDR
The most important, and perhaps unexpected, finding was that the best outcomes were obtained when the behavioral intervention was combined with training in the use of a speech-generating device (SGD) right from the start.
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Presented at IMFAR 2010, Philadelphia, PA Abstract Lack of speech is one of the hallmarks of many individuals with autism (Pickett et al., 2009), but even individuals who can speak are often
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It is highlighted that many severely language-delayed children in the present sample attained phrase or fluent speech at or after age 4 years, which implicate the importance of evaluating and considering nonverbal skills, both cognitive and social, when developing interventions and setting goals for language development.
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TLDR
The population is defined and general guidelines for optimizing assessment sessions for this challenging population are presented, including available measures that can be used across a variety of behavioral domains that are most directly relevant to developing language skills.
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TLDR
The overall quality of the evidence is rated as very low due to risk of bias, imprecision, and because there was only one trial identified per type of intervention (i.e. verbally based or AAC).
The Hypothesis of Apraxia of Speech in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
TLDR
Double dissociations in speech, prosody, and voice impairments in ASD were interpreted as consistent with a speech attunement framework, rather than with the motor speech impairments that define CAS.
Minimally Verbal School‐Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Neglected End of the Spectrum
  • H. Tager-Flusberg, C. Kasari
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research
  • 2013
TLDR
Promising new novel methods for assessing the verbal and nonverbal abilities of minimally verbal school‐aged children, including eye‐tracking and brain‐imaging methods that do not require overt responses are reviewed.
Longitudinal study of symptom severity and language in minimally verbal children with autism.
TLDR
Findings indicate that the severity of SA symptoms has some relationship with continuous language outcome, but not categorical, and the omnipresent influence of nonverbal cognitive ability was confirmed in the current study.
Nonverbal Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Why Don't They Speak?
The presence of even one word or some echolalic speech appears to be a significant predictor of spoken language acquisition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, for a substantial subgroup of
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