Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors

  title={Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors},
  author={Julie L. Schnapf and Timothy W Kraft and Denis A. Baylor},
The brain computes visual colour by analysing the relative excitations of three types of retinal cones1. Each cone excitation is governed by a spectral sensitivity function which relates the amplitude of the neural response to wavelength at constant light intensity. The spectral sensitivities of human cones are not well characterized. We report measuring the sensitivities by recording electrical responses of human cones to stimuli of different wavelengths. Spectral sensitivities of 'green' and… 


Psychophysical results on human colour matching were well predicted from the spectral sensitivities of the monkey cones, and the spectra of the red and green cones matched the respective 1r5 and ir4 mechanisms of Stiles (1953, 1959).

Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

Psychophysical results on human colour matching were well predicted from the spectral sensitivities of the monkey cones, and the spectra of the red and green cones matched the respective pi 5 and pi 4 mechanisms of Stiles (1953, 1959).

Spectral sensitivity of the feedback signal from horizontal cells to cones in goldfish retina

The spectral sensitivity of cones in isolated goldfish retina was determined with whole-cell recording techniques and was consistent with a connectivity scheme between cones and horizontal cells in which the three horizontal cells feed back to all cone systems and in which all horizontal cell systems receive input from more than one cone system.

Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors.

The relationship between light intensity and steady‐state response amplitude was shallower than that expected from simple response saturation, consistent with an adaptation mechanism acting on a rapid time scale.

Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

Visual transduction in macaque cones was studied by measuring the membrane current of single outer segments projecting from small pieces of retina, suggesting that bright light desensitized the transduction with a delay.


One of the most important characteristics of the human visual system: that it is normally trichromatic is demonstrated.

Retinal factors of visual sensitivity in the human fovea

Humans direct their gaze towards visual objects of interest such that the retinal images of fixated objects fall onto the fovea, a small anatomically and physiologically specialized region of the

Photoreceptor topography and cone-specific electroretinograms

The data suggest that the L+M cone ERG amplitude increases with stimulus diameter in direct proportion to the estimated number of cones stimulated, and the total L-M responses appear to be predicted from individual L and M responses by simple linear summation for both the disc and annular stimuli.



Spectral sensitivity of single cones in the retina of Macaca fascicularis

The measured spectral sensitivities of the red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones agreed well with estimates of the cone pigment absorptions derived from colour-matching experiments in humans, and at long wavelengths the sensitivity of thered cones was found to decline more rapidly than that of the green.

The sensitivity of the human eye to infra-red radiation.

The spectral sensitivity of the fovea determined in this way is consistent with previous measurements of Goodeve on the unfixated eye, and under such circumstances thefovea may become more sensitive than the periphery well into the infra-red.

The photocurrent, noise and spectral sensitivity of rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

The results support the idea that dim background light desensitizes human scotopic vision by a mechanism central to the rod outer segments whileScotopic saturation may occur within the outer segments.

The colour of light of very long wavelength

In January 1954 it was noticed by chance, in the course of another investigation, that to all but one of about twenty subjects with normal colour vision, light of wavelength over 0 80,u appeared

The membrane current of single rod outer segments

Out Outer segments of individual rods in the retina of the toad were drawn into a glass pipette to record the membrane current, indicating that adapting light modifies the kinetics and gain of the transduction mechanism within the outer segment.

Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments.

The isolation and sequencing of genomic and complementary DNA clones that encode the apoproteins of these three pigments are described and the deduced amino acid sequences show 41 +/- 1 percent identity with rhodopsin.

S‐potentials from colour units in the retina of fish (Cyprinidae)

1. S‐potentials recorded from the excised tench retina left undisturbed in the optic cup show colour cells of the two types originally described by Svaetichin & MacNichol (1958).

Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer

New and extended tables which are intended to be complementary to, rather than to compete with, the old CIE tables are given.

Spatial spread of activation and background desensitization in toad rod outer segments

1. The spread of activation and background desensitization in rods was studied by recording membrane current from single outer segments in pieces of isolated toad retina.