Specious reward: a behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control.

@article{Ainslie1975SpeciousRA,
  title={Specious reward: a behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control.},
  author={George Ainslie},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={1975},
  volume={82 4},
  pages={
          463-96
        }
}
  • G. Ainslie
  • Published 1975
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological bulletin
In a choice among assured, familiar outcomes of behavior, impulsiveness is the choice of less rewarding over more rewarding alternatives. Discussions of impulsiveness in the literature of economics, sociology, social psychology, dynamic psychology and psychiatry, behavioral psychology, and "behavior therapy" are reviewed. 'Impulsiveness seems to be best accounted for by the hyberbolic curves that have been found to describe the decline in effectiveness of rewards as the rewards are delayed from… Expand
The latent structure of impulsivity: impulsive choice, impulsive action, and impulsive personality traits
TLDR
These findings support the hypothesis that diverse measures of impulsivity can broadly be organized into three categories that are largely distinct from one another and warrant investigation among individuals with clinical levels of addictive behavior. Expand
Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms of Impulsive Choice
NEURAL AND BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF IMPULSIVE CHOICE SEPTEMBER 2015 JESSE MCCLURE, B.S., ST CLOUD STATE UNIVERSITY Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Directed by: Professor Heather RichardsonExpand
The behavioral economics of will in recovery from addiction.
TLDR
Self-control phenomena predicted by hyperbolic discounting are summarized, including an increase in motivation to wait for delayed rewards that can be expected to result from making choices in whole categories, and it is suggested that the bundling effect can be discerned in the advice of 12-step programs. Expand
Taking More, Now
TLDR
A more nuanced conceptualization of trait impulsivity as it applies to rewards-related decision making is suggested that may help explain the variability observed in this trait across individuals. Expand
Beyond discounting: possible experimental models of impulse control
TLDR
Animal studies of impulsivity have typically used one of three models: a delay of reward procedure, a differential reinforcement for low rate responding (DRL) procedure, or an autoshaping procedure, which is argued to provide a better analog of human impulsivity. Expand
The neuroscience of impulsive and self-controlled decisions.
TLDR
Significant advances in this field of research may help to explain neuropathologies that are characterised by exaggerated impulsivity, or lack of self-control, as for instance attention deficit disorders, frontal lobe syndrome, drug addiction, or pathological gambling. Expand
Self-reported tactics of impulse control.
  • G. Ainslie
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The International journal of the addictions
  • 1987
TLDR
A questionnaire elicited college students' and prisoners' self-reports of approval of four basic kinds of precommitting tactics as applied to 14 commonplace temptations and found that female subjects endorsed attention control as a preCommitting device more than males, and male subjects endorsed extrapsychic devices more than females. Expand
An experimental analysis of impulsivity and impulse control in humans.
Abstract In choosing between small, immediate and large, delayed reward, an organism behaves impulsively if it chooses the small reward and shows impulse control if it chooses the large reward. WorkExpand
Précis of Breakdown of Will
  • G. Ainslie
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 2005
TLDR
Hyperbolic curves suggest a means of reducing classical conditioning to motivated choice, the last necessary step for modeling many involuntary processes like emotion and appetite as reward-seeking behaviors; such modeling, in turn, provides a rationale for empathic reward and the “construction” of reality. Expand
Another look at impulsivity: Could impulsive behavior be strategic?
TLDR
It is proposed that impulsive behavior may be a response to certain needs or goals that people have in the moment and could therefore be strategic and help to move away from pathologizing or moralizing the behavior. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 133 REFERENCES
Attention in delay of gratification.
The role of altcntional processes in voluntary delay of reward was explored by manipulating children's attention to the rewards for which they were waiting in a delay-of-gratification paradigm.Expand
DELAY OF GRATIFICATION, MOTIVATION FOR THE PROHIBITED GRATIFICATION, AND RESPONSES TO TEMPTATION.
Yielding to temptation, in a situation in which attainment of achievement rewards is contingent upon deviant (cheating) behavior, was conceptualized to be a function of (a) the strength of theExpand
Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality.
  • W. Mischel
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological review
  • 1973
TLDR
The issues discussed include the nature of behavioral "specificity," the acquired meaning of stimuli, the uses and misuses of traits, and the construction of personality. Expand
Self-control: A behavioristic excursion into the lion's den
The concept of ‘self-control,” until recently embedded in intrapsychic personality theories and banished from strict behavioral accounts of human activity, is considered from the perspective of aExpand
Cognitive and attentional mechanisms in delay of gratification.
TLDR
Attentional and cognitive mechanisms which enhanced the salience of the rewards shortened the length of voluntary delay, while distractions from the rewards, overtly or cogmtively, facilitated delay. Expand
Method and theory in the study of avoidance.
TLDR
It is suggested that the conditioned stimulus may function as a discriminative stimulus for the avoidance response, rather than as a stimulus whose removal is inherently reinforcing, as two-factor theory requires. Expand
CORRELATED DELAY OF REINFORCEMENT 1
It is well established that variations in an operant response can be differentiated by arranging appropriate reinforcement conditions. For example, Skinner (1938) and Ferster and Skinner (1957) haveExpand
Modification of self-imposed delay of reward through exposure to live and symbolic models.
TLDR
Both live and symbolic models produced substantial modifications in delay-of-reward behavior within the immediate social-influence setting, but the changes induced in high-delay children through exposure to symbolic models were less stable over time. Expand
Delay of Gratification as a Function of Race of the Experimenter.
Sixth-grade black and white students were offered one 45-rpm record as an immediate reward for completing a locus of control measure or three records if they would wait for the experimenter, either aExpand
Commitment, choice and self-control.
  • H. Rachlin, L. Green
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior
  • 1972
TLDR
The preference for the large delayed alternative with long durations of T parallels everyday instances of advance commitment to a given course of action and may be seen as a prototype for self-control. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...