Reprogramming of nuclear proteasomes under apoptosis induction in K562 cells II. Effect of antitumor drug doxorubicin
The participation of proteasome in the programmed cells death is now extensively investigated. Studies using selective inhibitors of proteasomes have provided a direct evidence of both pro- and anti-apoptotic functions of proteasomes. Such opposite roles of 26S proteasomes in regulation of apoptosis may be defined by the proliferative state of cell. The induction of apoptosis in K562 cells by diethylmaleate was used as a model to investigate changes in the subunit composition, phosphorylation state and enzymatic activities of 26S proteasomes undergoing the programmed cell death. Here we have shown that proteasomes isolated from the cytoplasm of control and diethylmaleate treated K562 cells differ in their subunit patterns, as well as in the phosphorylation state of subunits on threonine and tyrosine residues. It has been shown for the first time that proteolytic activity of 26S proteasomes is decreased, and endoribonuclease activity of 26S proteasomes is affected under diethylmaleate action on K562 cells. Treatment of K562 cells with an inductor of apoptosis--diethylmaleate--leads to modification of a proteasomal subunit (zeta/alpha5) associated with RNase activity of proteasomes. These data suggest the subunit composition and enzymatic activities of 26S proteasomes to be changed in K562 cells undergoing apoptosis, and that specific subtypes of 26S proteasomes participate in execution of programmed death of these cells.