Specific phobias.

  title={Specific phobias.},
  author={Alfons O. Hamm},
  journal={The Psychiatric clinics of North America},
  volume={32 3},
  • A. Hamm
  • Published 2009
  • Psychology, Biology
  • The Psychiatric clinics of North America

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Modeling specific phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder in rodents: the challenge to convey both cognitive and emotional features

The purpose of this review is to describe and comment on the most commonly used rodent models of specific phobias and PTSD, with a particular focus on the cued version of fear conditioning.

Treatment options for the specific phobias

Exposure-based therapy for specific phobias is the first choice followed by cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques and short-term pharmacotherapy, which accelerates fear reduction during exposure by facilitating memory consolidation during post-treatment phase.

Recent developments in the intervention of specific phobia among adults: a rapid review

Evidence indicates that psychotherapy, and in particular cognitive behaviour therapy, when implemented independently or as an adjunctive, is a superior intervention with large effect sizes, and challenges remain with the inherent heterogeneity of specific phobia as a disorder.

The scope of the problem.

Clinical experience suggests that specific phobias can take on a profound role in a relationship culture or family system and it is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for pervasive life interference that can result if specific phobia is untreated.

Management of Specific Phobias

Exposure based therapies (EBT) outperform most nonexposure treatments and are considered the treatment of choice and further research is required to define the role of SSRIs for treatment of specific phobias.

Evidence-Based Behavioral Treatment of Dog Phobia With Young Children

Two case studies that provide empirical support for the evidence-based behavioral treatment of specific phobia with young children (ages 4 and 5 years) indicated that following 10 to 13 sessions of graduated exposure therapy using reinforced practice and participant modeling, the children no longer met criteria for clinically significant phobias of dogs.

Anxiety, Phobias, Treatment and Associated Costs: A Review

  • David D. Gray
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Research supports the theory that extinction of phobias may actually be the learning of a new memory rather than the unlearning of an old memory, and research suggests that sleep plays a role in phobia-extinction.

Perceptually Visible but Emotionally Subliminal Stimuli to Improve Exposure Therapies

Emotionally subliminal stimuli could make patients able to sustain a conscious exposure to feared stimuli without exaggeratedly reacting to them: if confirmed by empirical data, this unexpected disconfirmation of patients’ beliefs could pave the way for successful therapy while increasing their self-efficacy and compliance to treatment.



Treatment of specific phobia in adults.

Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear.

These pilot data provide initial support for the use of acute dosing of DCS as an adjunct to exposure-based psychotherapy to accelerate the associative learning processes that contribute to correcting psychopathology.

Long-term effects of cognitive behavior therapy on brain activation in spider phobia

Animal phobias versus claustrophobias: exteroceptive versus interoceptive cues.

Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy

Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo.

Spacing of exposure sessions in treatment of agoraphobia and simple phobia