Specific Language Impairment is not Specific to Language: the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis

@article{Ullman2005SpecificLI,
  title={Specific Language Impairment is not Specific to Language: the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis},
  author={Michael T. Ullman and Elizabeth I. Pierpont},
  journal={Cortex},
  year={2005},
  volume={41},
  pages={399-433}
}
Specific Language Impairment (SLI) has been explained by two broad classes of hypotheses, which posit either a deficit specific to grammar, or a non-linguistic processing impairment. Here we advance an alternative perspective. According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), SLI can be largely explained by the abnormal development of brain structures that constitute the procedural memory system. This system, which is composed of a network of inter-connected structures rooted in frontal… 
ON MEMORY IN SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT ( SLI )
The term “Specific Language Impairment” (SLI) refers to disturbances in acquiring the skills needed for language, especially the syntactic and morphological components, in children who are not
Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.
TLDR
It is suggested that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these impairments are specifically tied to the grammatical deficits in the disorder.
The Role of Memory Systems in Specific Language Impairment-Procedural Memory System Dysfunctions
This study aims at discussing the role that Memory Systems play on Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and the problems caused by the dysfunctions at the Procedural Memory System. After a brief
Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment
TLDR
The evidence largely supports the predictions of the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis, and works to replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI.
The role of declarative and procedural memory in disorders of language
Language is often assumed to rely on domain-specific neurocognitive substrates. However, this human capacity in fact seems to crucially depend on general-purpose memory systems in the brain. Evidence
Aspects of grammar sensitive to procedural memory deficits in children with specific language impairment.
TLDR
Predictions are made for aspects of grammar that could be sensitive to procedural deficits based on core ideas of procedural deficit hypothesis that the grammatical operations that require greater sequencing abilities (such as inflectional operations) would be more affected in children with language impairment.
Contributions of memory circuits to language: the declarative/procedural model
TLDR
It is proposed that "language" disorders, such as specific language impairment and non-fluent and fluent aphasia, may be profitably viewed as impairments primarily affecting one or the other brain system, and suggested a new neurocognitive framework for the study of lexicon and grammar.
Verbal and nonverbal sequencing in children with specific language impairment
Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which interferes with language expression and processing, but children with SLI show no obvious physical or neurological basis for
Domain-general sequence learning deficit in specific language impairment.
TLDR
Findings suggest that domain-general processes of implicit sequence learning tend to be impaired in SLI, and further research is needed to clarify the relationship of deficits in implicit learning and language.
Procedural Learning in Specific Language Impairment: Effects of Sequence Complexity
TLDR
The results show that children with SLI had impaired procedural memory, as evidenced by both longer reaction times and no sign of sequence-specific learning in comparison with typically developing controls, and suggest that procedural sequence-learning in SLI children depends on the complexity of the to-be-learned sequence.
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