Specific Calcium Antagonists in the Treatment of Peripheral Vascular Disease

  title={Specific Calcium Antagonists in the Treatment of Peripheral Vascular Disease},
  author={M. B. Emanuel},
  pages={454 - 469}
  • M. Emanuel
  • Published 1 July 1979
  • Medicine, Biology, Chemistry
  • Angiology
The antivasoconstrictor activity of the drugs cinnarizine and flunarizine is considered in relation to their inhibitory action on calcium ion flux mechanisms. Their clinical efficacy in peripheral vascular disease is reviewed, and the possible mode of action of the two drugs is discussed in relation to their described pharmacologic effects. 

Pharmacological Agents Affecting Emesis

Radiation therapy appears to be similar to cytotoxic therapy in that the mediators produced or released by radiation activate both peripheral and central sites involved in the vomiting reflex.

Pharmacological Agents Affecting Emesis

The use of dopamine receptor antagonists in controlling emesis induced by dopamine agonists used in Parkinson’s disease poses theoretical problems which can be overcome by using drugs with selectivity for the chemoreceptor trigger zone, such as domperidone or metoclopramide.

Calcium-entry blockers and cardiovascular disease.

Protection by Flunarizine against Endothelial Cell Injury in vivo

The protection by flunarizine against endothelial injury may be related to its Ca2+-antagonistic properties and the compound does not affect platelet function, plasma coagulation or generation of PGI2 by vascular tissue and does not impair normal haemostasis at effective doses.

Cinnarizine—a labyrinthine sedative

  • G. Towse
  • Biology
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
  • 1980
The role of cinnarizine in the management of motion sickness and Vertigo is reviewed.

Fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate versus betahistine dimesylate in the treatment of Ménière's disease: a randomized, double-blind, parallel group clinical study.

The combination preparation proved to be a highly efficient and safe treatment option for Ménière's disease and may be used both in the management of acute episodes and in long-term treatment.

Drugs Affecting the Inner Ear

The drugs most noted for their ototoxicity are the aminoglycoside antibiotics, certain diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, certain anticancer agents and some miscellaneous chemicals.

Inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and endothelial permeability with flunarizine in vitro and in experimental atheromas

  • E. BetzH. HämmerleT. Strohschneider
  • Biology, Medicine
    Research in experimental medicine. Zeitschrift fur die gesamte experimentelle Medizin einschliesslich experimenteller Chirurgie
  • 1985
It can be concluded that Flunarizine exerts its inhibitory action not only by its effect on the permeation through the endothelial lining but by a combined action on permeability and proliferation of cells in the artery wall.

1,4‐Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists and activators: A comparison of binding characteristics with pharmacology

This comparison of the binding characteristics and pharmacology of 1,4‐dihydropyridines indicates that the high‐affinity binding sites studied in cardiac and smooth muscle cells represent a major



Effect of cinnarizine on peripheral circulation in dogs.

Proceedings: Inhibition by cinnarizine of calcium channels opening in depolarized smooth muscle.

The present experiments were designed to determine whether such inhibition is due to reduction of the permeability of the vascular smooth muscle membrane to Ca++ions.

Action of Cinnarizine on the Hyperviscosity of Blood in Patients with Peripheral Obliterative Arterial Disease

It was hypothesized that this action of cinnarizine may be due to an increased deformability of the red cells, and may play a considerable role in the therapeutic approach to POAD.

Effect of flunarizine on calcium-induced responses of peripheral vascular smooth muscle.

The present experiments suggest that flunarizine inhibits peripheral vasoconstriction by selectively decreasing the rate of stimulated Ca2+-influx, without affecting the myogenic activity of the vascular smooth muscle cells.

Prognostic Significance of Rheological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

There was a significant correlation between progressive deterioration of the peripheral circulatory disturbance and the initial blood viscosity, the plasma fibrinogen level, and the susceptibility of red cell lipids to autoxidation.

The Arteriolar Effects of Cinnarizine and Flunarizine

Cinnarizine and flunarizines improved vascular disten sion and blood flow in normal volunteers, as well as in patients with occlusive disease of the extremities due to arteriosclerosis and showed increased postexercise arm-ankle pressure gradients and better exercise performance and tolerance.

Influence of cinnarizine on the labyrinth and on vertigo

Cinnarizine appeared to reduce the reaction to labyrinthine stimulation in normal subjects as well as to relieve symptoms in patients with vertigo.

Effect of certain drugs on the incidence of seasickness

Several drugs were tested, some of them for the first time, against seasickness in military personnel on transport ships on the North Atlantic ocean, and phenglutarmide and cinnarazine were significantly effective on a single trip.