Specific 13C functional pathways as diagnostic targets in gastroenterology breath-tests: tricks for a correct interpretation.

Abstract

Breath tests are non-invasive, non-radioactive, safe, simple and effective tests able to determine significant metabolic alterations due to specific diseases or lack of specific enzymes. Carbon isotope (13)C, the stable-non radioactive isotope of carbon, is the most used substrate in breath testing, in which (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured and expressed as a… (More)

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