Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8.

@article{Heil2004SpeciesspecificRO,
  title={Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8.},
  author={Florian Heil and Hiroaki Hemmi and Hubertus Hochrein and Franziska Ampenberger and Carsten J Kirschning and Shizuo Akira and Grayson B. Lipford and Hermann Wagner and Stefan Bauer},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={303 5663},
  pages={1526-9}
}
Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) serves as a danger signal associated with viral infection and leads to stimulation of innate immune cells. In contrast, the immunostimulatory potential of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is poorly understood and innate immune receptors for ssRNA are unknown. We report that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) stimulate dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages to secrete interferon-alpha… CONTINUE READING
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