Species-Specific Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA via Toll-like Receptor 7 and 8

@article{Heil2004SpeciesSpecificRO,
  title={Species-Specific Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA via Toll-like Receptor 7 and 8},
  author={Florian Heil and Hiroaki Hemmi and Hubertus Hochrein and Franziska Ampenberger and Carsten J. Kirschning and Shizuo Akira and Grayson B. Lipford and Hermann Wagner and Stefan Bauer},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={303},
  pages={1526 - 1529}
}
Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) serves as a danger signal associated with viral infection and leads to stimulation of innate immune cells. In contrast, the immunostimulatory potential of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is poorly understood and innate immune receptors for ssRNA are unknown. We report that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived from human immunodeficiency virus–1 (HIV-1) stimulate dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages to secrete interferon-α and… 

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