Specialization of the specialized in features of external human brain morphology

@article{Bangert2006SpecializationOT,
  title={Specialization of the specialized in features of external human brain morphology},
  author={Marc Bangert and Gottfried Schlaug},
  journal={European Journal of Neuroscience},
  year={2006},
  volume={24}
}
Recent studies have shown brain differences between professional musicians and non‐musicians with respect to size, asymmetry or gray matter density of specific cerebral regions. Here we demonstrate: (1) that anatomical differences in the motor cortex can already be detected by coarse visual inspection; and (2) that within musicians, even a discrimination of instruments with different manual dominance is possible on a gross anatomical scale. Multiple raters, blinded for subject identity and… 

Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum: a comparison between musicians and non-musicians

TLDR
While string players had greater IHI than non-musicians and showed a positive structure-function relationship, the amount of IHI in pianists was comparable to that of non-Musicians and there was no significant structure- function relationship.

Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

TLDR
Intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life.

Do musicians have different brains?

TLDR
A key challenge for the future will be to develop theoretical frameworks within which musicians and other occupationally specialised groups can be studied in order to investigate the nature, scope and limits of neuroplasticity.

Modulation of Functional Connectivity in Auditory‐Motor Networks in Musicians Compared with Nonmusicians

TLDR
Results show that functional coupling within the motor system and between motor and auditory areas is modulated as a function of musical training, suggesting a link between anatomic and functional brain features.

Assessment of sensorimotor cortical representation asymmetries and motor skills in violin players

TLDR
The results support a use‐dependent enlargement of the left hand representation in the sensorimotor cortex of violin players, however, these cortical asymmetries were not paralleled by accompanying altered asymmetry at a behavioural level, suggesting that the reorganisation might be task‐specific and does not lead to improved motor abilities in general.

Musical brains: The influence of musical expertise and gender on brain structure and lateralisation

A growing literature has identified compelling links between musical expertise and structural and functional alterations in the brain. These are thought to reflect experiencedependent

Inter‐individual differences in audio‐motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture

TLDR
The results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio‐motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning.

Differential adaptation of descending motor tracts in musicians.

TLDR
Diffusivity measures of fibers originating in the primary motor cortex correlated with the maximal tapping rate of the contralateral index finger across all groups, supported further by finding correlations between diffusivity Measures and maximal tapping rates.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES

Brain Structures Differ between Musicians and Non-Musicians

TLDR
Using a voxel-by-voxel morphometric technique, gray matter volume differences in motor, auditory, and visual-spatial brain regions are found when comparing professional musicians (keyboard players) with a matched group of amateur musicians and non-musicians.

Motor cortex and hand motor skills: Structural compliance in the human brain

TLDR
The size of the ILPG was negatively correlated with age of commencement of musical training in keyboard players, supporting the hypothesis that the human motor cortex can exhibit functionally induced and long‐lasting structural adaptations.

The brain of musicians. A model for functional and structural adaptation.

  • G. Schlaug
  • Psychology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2001
TLDR
It is reported that certain regions in the brain may show some form of adaptation to extraordinary challenges and requirements of performance, and the neural correlates of one unique musical ability, absolute pitch, are shown.

Increased corpus callosum size in musicians

Handedness and asymmetry of hand representation in human motor cortex.

TLDR
The results demonstrate for the first time a biological correlate of handedness in human motor cortex and suggest the expansion of hand motor cortex in the dominant hemisphere may provide extra space for the cortical encoding of a greater motor skill repertoire of the preferred hand.

Timbre-specific enhancement of auditory cortical representations in musicians

Neural imaging studies have shown that the brains of skilled musicians respond differently to musical stimuli than do the brains of non-musicians, particularly for musicians who commenced practice at

Morphology of Heschl's gyrus reflects enhanced activation in the auditory cortex of musicians

TLDR
Results indicate that both the morphology and neurophysiology of Heschl's gyrus have an essential impact on musical aptitude.

Localization of the motor hand area to a knob on the precentral gyrus. A new landmark.

TLDR
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) it is concluded that neural elements involved in motor hand function are located in a characteristic 'precentral knob' which is a reliable landmark for identifying the precentral gyrus under normal and pathological conditions.