Special feature: Tutorial. Principles and instrumentation in time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry. Physical and instrumental concepts

  title={Special feature: Tutorial. Principles and instrumentation in time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry. Physical and instrumental concepts},
  author={Michael Guilhaus},
  journal={Journal of Mass Spectrometry},
  • M. Guilhaus
  • Published 1 November 1995
  • Physics
  • Journal of Mass Spectrometry
The principles of time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) are described with a view to understanding the strengths and weaknesses of this method of mass analysis in the context of current applications of mass spectrometry and the more familiar scanning instruments. Fundamental and instrumental factors affecting resolving power, sensitivity and speed are examined. Methods of gating ion populations and the special requirements in the detection and digitisation of the signals in the TOFMS… 


Time-of-flight instruments form a well-established group of mass spectrometers, with its popularity still increasing. Methods of gating ion populations and the special requirements in the detection

Orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

The principles and applications of time-of-flight mass spectrometry involving instruments with independent (orthogonal) axes for ion generation and mass analysis are reviewed and the applications of commercial and customized instruments are discussed for several ionization methods.

In pursuit of resolution in time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A historical perspective.

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry is reviewed from its inception in the 1940s to the present day and of ion sources to the extent that sources influence analyzers.

An overview of analytical applications of time of flight-mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) analyzers and an inductively coupled plasma-TOF-MS technique.

  • M. Balcerzak
  • Chemistry
    Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
  • 2003
The performance of time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source is discussed in detail and the advantages of TOF-MS detectors over the quadrupole mass filters for multi-elemental analysis of fast transient signals are discussed.

Mass analyzers for inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry

The use of a time-of-flight mass analyzer for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is examined, with emphasis placed on the attributes of the different instrument geometries that have been

Continuous two-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection of electrosprayed ions.

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry seems to be an ideal detector for fast separations of analytes with a broad range of molecular weights, but the pulsed nature of TOFMS yields inherent losses when analyzing ions emerging from continuous ion sources.

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Introduction to the basics.

  • U. Boesl
  • Physics
    Mass spectrometry reviews
  • 2017
Basic formulas are presented and discussed with the focus on understanding the physical relations of geometric and electric parameters, initial distribution of ionic parameters, ion flight times, and ion flight time incertitude.



Time of flight mass spectrometry

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) was developed in the late 1940’s, but until the 1990’s its popularity was limited. Recent improvements in TOF technology, including orthogonal acceleration,

Energy Resolution of the Conventional Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer

The resolutions of time‐of‐flight (TOF) mass spectrometers using multiple acceleration are compared with respect to their ability to compensate for initial ion velocities while operating in the space


A new type of ion gun is described which greatly improves the resolution of a nonmagnetic time‐of‐flight mass spectrometer. The focusing action of this gun is discussed and analyzed mathematically.

Plasma source atmospheric pressure ionization detection of liquid injection using an ion trap storage/reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer

In this work, the capabilities of an ion trap storage/reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IT/reTOF-MS) combination have been explored for detection of ions generated by liquid injection into

Int . J . Mass Spectrom . Ion Proc

  • Int . J . Mass Spectrom . Ion Proc
  • 1989