Spatially Resolved Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Great Dimming of Betelgeuse

  title={Spatially Resolved Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Great Dimming of Betelgeuse},
  author={Andrea K. Dupree and Klaus G. Strassmeier and Lynn D. Matthews and Han Uitenbroek and Thomas J. Calderwood and Thomas Granzer and Edward F. Guinan and Reimar H. Leike and Miguel Montarg{\`e}s and Anita M. S. Richards and Rick Wasatonic and Michael Weber},
  journal={arXiv: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics},
The bright supergiant, Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis, HD 39801) experienced a visual dimming during 2019 December and the first quarter of 2020 reaching an historic minimum 2020 February 7$-$13. During 2019 September-November, prior to the optical dimming event, the photosphere was expanding. At the same time, spatially resolved ultraviolet spectra using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph revealed a substantial increase in the ultraviolet spectrum and Mg II line… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Spectroscopic evidence for a large spot on the dimming Betelgeuse
Spectroscopic studies of Betelgeuse using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared spectra obtained at Weihai Observatory covering the phases of during and after dimming show that the dimming episode is caused by the dropping of its effective temperature by at least 170 K on 2020 January 31, that can be attributed to the emergence of a large dark spot on the surface of the star.
The Photospheric Temperatures of Betelgeuse during the Great Dimming of 2019/2020: No New Dust Required
The processes that shape the extended atmospheres of red supergiants (RSGs), heat their chromospheres, create molecular reservoirs, drive mass loss, and create dust remain poorly understood.
Atmosphere of Betelgeuse before and during the Great Dimming event revealed by tomography
Context. Despite being the best studied red supergiant star in our Galaxy, the physics behind the photometric variability and mass loss of Betelgeuse is poorly understood. Moreover, recently the star
The Great Dimming of Betelgeuse seen by the Himawari-8 meteorological satellite
Betelgeuse, one of the most studied red supergiant stars1,2, dimmed in the optical range by ~1.2 mag between late 2019 and early 2020, reaching a historical minimum3–5 called ‘the Great Dimming’.
A dusty veil shading Betelgeuse during its Great Dimming.
Observations and modelling support a scenario in which a dust clump formed recently in the vicinity of the star, owing to a local temperature decrease in a cool patch that appeared on the photosphere, and suggest that a component of mass loss from red supergiants is inhomogeneous, linked to a very contrasted and rapidly changing photosphere.
Evidence for dynamical changes in Betelgeuse using multi-wavelength data
The reasons behind the Great Dimming and subsequent rising in the brightness of Betelgeuse between October 2019 and March 2020 still continues to baffle astronomers. It has been shown by George et.
An Exceptional Dimming Event for a Massive, Cool Supergiant in M51
We present the discovery of an exceptional dimming event in a cool supergiant star in the Local Volume spiral M51. The star, dubbed M51-DS1, was found as part of a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) search
Episodic Gaseous Outflows and Mass Loss from Red Supergiants
The red hypergiant VY CMa and the more typical red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse provide clear observational evidence for discrete, directed gaseous outflows in their optical and infrared imaging,
3D MHD astrospheres: applications to IRC-10414 and Betelgeuse
A significative fraction of all massive stars in the Milky Way move supersonically through their local interstellar medium (ISM), producing bow shock nebulae by wind-ISM interaction. The stability
Long Term Evolution of Surface Features on the Red Supergiant AZ Cyg
We present H-band interferometric observations of the red supergiant (RSG) AZ Cyg that were made with the Michigan Infra-Red Combiner (MIRC) at the six-telescope Center for High Angular Resolution


Spatially Resolved Hubble Space Telescope Spectra of the Chromosphere of α Orionis
Spatially resolved UV spectra of the supergiant α Orionis (Betelgeuse) obtained in 1995 March with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show that
Modeling the Variable Chromosphere of α Orionis
A spectral analysis of the prototypical red supergiant star a Ori that is based on near-UV, optical, and near-IR high-dispersion spectra obtained between 1992 September and 1999 July with the Space
Differential Speckle Polarimetry of Betelgeuse in 2019-2020: the rise is different from the fall
Recently published episodic spectral (Levesque and Massey, 2020) and high angular resolution (Montarges et al, 2020) observations of Betelgeuse suggest that the deep minimum of 2019-2020 was caused
Direct Ultraviolet Imaging and Spectroscopy of Betelgeuse
Direct images of Betelgeuse were obtained over a span of 4 years with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. These images reveal the extended ultraviolet continuum emission (about 2
The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - IV. VLTI/PIONIER interferometric monitoring of the photosphere
Context. The mass-loss mechanism of cool massive evolved stars is poorly understood. The proximity of Betelgeuse makes it an appealing target to study its atmosphere, map the shape of its envelope,
First Image of the Surface of a Star with the Hubble Space Telescope
A direct image of the surface of a star, Betelgeuse (=α Ori; M2 Iab), has been obtained with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. Images in two ~300 A-wide bands centered at 2550
The inhomogeneous submillimeter atmosphere of Betelgeuse
The mechanisms responsible for heating the extended atmospheres of early-M spectral-type supergiants are poorly understood. So too is the subsequent role these mechanisms play in driving the large
Electron Density and Turbulence Gradients within the Extended Atmosphere of the M Supergiant Betelgeuse (α Orionis)
The extended atmosphere of the M supergiant Betelgeuse is complex with cool plasma dominating the structure by mass and small amounts of embedded hotter chromospheric plasma. A major challenge is to
Periodic photospheric and chromospheric modulation in Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse)
The bright cool supergiant Alpha Orionis has been monitored spectroscopically and photometrically over the past three years (1984-1986) in the optical and the ultraviolet wavelength regions. A
Mg II h and k profiles in high-liminosity, late-type stars
Using high-resolution spectroscopic data taken with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrographic (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and with the International Ultraviolet Expolorer (IUE)