Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene

@article{Hughes2018SpatialAT,
  title={Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene},
  author={Terry P. Hughes and Kristen D Anderson and Sean R. Connolly and Scott F. Heron and James T. Kerry and Janice M. Lough and Andrew H. Baird and Julia K. Baum and Michael L. Berumen and Tom C. L. Bridge and Danielle C. Claar and C. Mark Eakin and James P. Gilmour and Nicholas A. J. Graham and Hugo B. Harrison and Jean-Paul A. Hobbs and Andrew S. Hoey and Mia O. Hoogenboom and Ryan J. Lowe and Malcolm T. McCulloch and John M. Pandolfi and Morgan S. Pratchett and Verena Schoepf and Gergely Torda and Shaun K. Wilson},
  journal={Science},
  year={2018},
  volume={359},
  pages={80 - 83}
}
Not enough time for recovery Coral bleaching occurs when stressful conditions result in the expulsion of the algal partner from the coral. Before anthropogenic climate warming, such events were relatively rare, allowing for recovery of the reef between events. Hughes et al. looked at 100 reefs globally and found that the average interval between bleaching events is now less than half what it was before. Such narrow recovery windows do not allow for full recovery. Furthermore, warming events… Expand

Topics from this paper

Abiotic and biotic controls on coral recovery 16 years after mass bleaching
AbstractAs climate changes increase heat stress on tropical ecosystems, the long-term persistence of coral reefs requires rapid coral recovery following coral bleaching events. Using the extent ofExpand
Spatial mismatch in fish and coral loss following 2016 mass coral bleaching.
TLDR
Short-term changes in coral communities and spatially associated reef fish assemblages, at Lizard Island, Australia, in response to the 2016 mass bleaching event are quantified to highlight the potential for short-term resilience to climate change, in fishes, through local migration and habitat plasticity. Expand
A global analysis of coral bleaching over the past two decades
TLDR
It is shown that bleaching probability is highest at mid-latitude sites despite equivalent thermal stress at equatorial sites, and that thermally susceptible genotypes may have declined and/or adapted such that the remaining coral populations now have a higher thermal threshold for bleaching. Expand
Early recovery dynamics of turbid coral reefs after recurring bleaching events.
TLDR
It is shown that coral recovery can be slower in areas of high turbidity and the rate may be reduced by local pressures, such as dredging, and management should focus on improving or maintaining local water quality to increase the likelihood of coral recovery under climate stress. Expand
Shifting Baselines: Physiological legacies contribute to the response of reef coral to frequent heat waves
TLDR
While magnitude of bleaching differed, immune response patterns were shared among corals harboring heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant Symbiodiniaceae, which supports a pattern of increased constitutive immunity in corals resulting from repeat bleaching events. Expand
Skeletal records of bleaching reveal different thermal thresholds of Pacific coral reef assemblages
Ocean warming is negatively impacting coral reef ecosystems and considerable effort is currently invested in projecting coral reef futures under 21st century climate change. A limiting factor inExpand
Decadal erosion of coral assemblages by multiple disturbances in the Palm Islands, central Great Barrier Reef
TLDR
The dynamics of cover and assemblage composition of corals on exposed inshore reefs in the Palm Islands, central Great Barrier Reef, over 19 years encapsulating major disturbance events such as the severe bleaching event in 1998 and Cyclone Yasi in 2011, along with other minor storm and heat stress events are described. Expand
Extreme temperature events will drive coral decline in the Coral Triangle.
TLDR
It was found that among future projections, reef survival probability and mean percent coral cover over time were largely determined by the presence or absence of interannual sea surface temperature (SST) extremes as well as absolute temperature increase. Expand
Thermally Variable, Macrotidal Reef Habitats Promote Rapid Recovery From Mass Coral Bleaching
Coral reefs are severely threatened by climate change and recurrent mass bleaching events, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the factors driving recovery and resilience both at theExpand
Ecosystem restructuring along the Great Barrier Reef following mass coral bleaching
TLDR
Fish and invertebrate communities transformed across the span of the Great Barrier Reef following the 2016 bleaching event due to a decline in coral-feeding fishes resulting from coral loss, and because of different regional responses of key trophic groups to the direct effect of temperature. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
Climate change and coral reef bleaching: An ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook
TLDR
The short- and long-term ecological impacts of coral bleaching on reef ecosystems are reviewed, and recovery data worldwide is quantitatively synthesized to maintain ecosystem resilience by restoring healthy levels of herbivory, macroalgal cover, and coral recruitment. Expand
Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals
TLDR
The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year, suggesting that local protection of reefs affords little or no resistance to extreme heat. Expand
Recovery of an Isolated Coral Reef System Following Severe Disturbance
TLDR
It is shown that isolated reefs can recover from major disturbance, and that the benefits of their isolation from chronic anthropogenic pressures can outweigh the costs of limited connectivity. Expand
Century-scale records of coral growth rates indicate that local stressors reduce coral thermal tolerance threshold.
Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent, and is typically associated with abnormally high waterExpand
Warming Trends and Bleaching Stress of the World’s Coral Reefs 1985–2012
TLDR
Using satellite temperature data for 1985–2012, the analysis is the first to quantify, for global reef locations, spatial variations in warming trends, thermal stress events and temperature variability at reef-scale, and indicates that the period of summer-like temperatures has become longer through the record, with a corresponding shortening of the ‘winter’ reprieve from warm temperatures. Expand
Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives
TLDR
An effort must be made to understand the impact of bleaching on the remainder of the reef community and the long-term effects on competition, predation, symbioses, bioerosion and substrate condition, all factors that can influence coral recruitment and reef recovery. Expand
Recovery of coral populations after the 1998 bleaching on Shiraho Reef, in the southern Ryukyus, NW Pacific
TLDR
A time-series transect study on a reef flat revealed the different responses of coral populations among species to this event, and found H. coerulea was the least susceptible to bleaching and maintained almost constant coverage before and after the bleaching. Expand
1997–98: Unprecedented thermal stress to coral reefs?
Mass bleaching is a stress response of corals subjected to warmer-than-normal seawater temperatures during the warm season. During 1997-98 there were unprecedented numbers of reports of bleaching onExpand
A new, high-resolution global mass coral bleaching database
TLDR
This study has developed the first-ever gridded, global-scale historical coral bleaching database and conducted a targeted search for bleaching reports not included in ReefBase by personally contacting scientists and divers conducting monitoring in under-reported locations and by extracting data from the literature. Expand
Mortality, growth and reproduction in scleractinian corals following bleaching on the Great barrier Reef
TLDR
Monitoring individual colonies of 4 common coral species for 8 mo following historically high sea-surface temperatures on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998 to compare their response to, and recovery from, thermal stress and to examine the effect of bleaching on growth and reproduction in 2 Acropora species suggests recovery to former levels of abundance is likely to be slow. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...