Spatial Dynamics of Lyme Disease: A Review

  title={Spatial Dynamics of Lyme Disease: A Review},
  author={Mary E Killilea and Andrea Swei and Robert S. Lane and Cheryl J. Briggs and Richard S. Ostfeld},
Lyme disease (LD), the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the United States, requires that humans, infected vector ticks, and infected hosts all occur in close spatial proximity. Understanding the spatial dynamics of LD requires an understanding of the spatial determinants of each of these organisms. We review the literature on spatial patterns and environmental correlates of human cases of LD and the vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern and midwestern United States… 

Spatial distribution and variation analysis of Lyme disease in the Northeastern United States

The analysis of data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows a continuous upward trend since 1992 and the number of new Lyme disease cases occurred from 2007 to 2011 is twice as high as the number from 1992 to 1996.

What Do We Need to Know about Disease Ecology to Prevent Lyme Disease in the Northeastern United States?

Potential reasons for the continued lack of success in prevention and control of Lyme disease in the northeastern United States are assessed, and conceptual areas where additional knowledge could be used to improve Lyme disease Prevention and control strategies are identified.

Social-ecological factors determine spatial variation in human incidence of tick-borne ehrlichiosis

It is confirmed that the distribution of ehrlichiosis in Missouri is non-random, with numerous clusters of high incidence and significant, but spatially variable, associations between incidence and both biological and socioeconomic factors, including a positive association with reservoir host density and a negative association with human population density.

Risk Factors of Lyme Disease: An Intersection of Environmental Ecology and Systems Science

The influence of various risk factors on the risk of exposure to infected ticks on 22 different walkways is determined using multinomial logistic regression with 90% accuracy, in which the understory, human risk, and number of rodents are significant indicators.

Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region

The Texas-Mexico transboundary region appears to be part of a continuum in the pathogenic landscape of LD, and forecasting based on climate trends provides a tool to adapt strategies in the near future to mitigate the impact of LD related to its distribution and risk for transmission to human populations.

GIS and Remote Sensing Use in the Exploration of Lyme Disease Epidemiology

  • E. Ozdenerol
  • Biology
    International journal of environmental research and public health
  • 2015
The aim of this inquiry was to explore research conducted on spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in order to identify strategies for implementing vector and reservoir-targeted interventions.

Human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, in eastern United States.

The geographic pattern of human risk for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the tick-borne pathogen that causes Lyme disease, was mapped for the eastern United States. The map is

Impact of Land Use Changes and Habitat Fragmentation on the Eco-epidemiology of Tick-Borne Diseases

How land use changes have shaped the eco-epidemiology of Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens, in particular the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in the eastern United States is focused on.

Disease Risk in a Dynamic Environment: The Spread of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Minnesota, USA

This work used 16 years of case data from the Minnesota Department of Health to report spatial and temporal trends in Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and babesiosis, and used a spatial regression framework to evaluate the impact of landscape and climate factors on the spread of LD.

An Examination of the Demographic and Environmental Variables Correlated with Lyme Disease Emergence in Virginia

Results support some findings of previous studies on ecological variables and Lyme disease in endemic areas, but other results have not been found in previous studies, highlighting the potential contribution of new variables as Lyme disease continues to emerge southward.



Spatial patterns of Lyme disease risk in California based on disease incidence data and modeling of vector-tick exposure.

A comparison of spatial Lyme disease incidence patterns based on county versus zip code units showed that calculating and displaying disease incidence at the zip code scale is a useful method to detect small, isolated areas with elevated disease risk that otherwise may go undetected.

The shifting landscape of tick-borne zoonoses: tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis in Europe.

  • S. Randolph
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2001
Insight into the temporal dynamics of TBE, gained from statistical analysis of spatial patterns integrated with biological explanation, suggests that the recent increases in TBE cases in Central Europe and the Baltic States may have arisen largely from changes in human behaviour that have brought more people into contact with infected ticks.

A climate-based model predicts the spatial distribution of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in the United States.

A spatially predictive logistic model is developed that provides a robust suitability model that reveals essential environmental determinants of habitat suitability, predicts emerging areas of Lyme disease risk, and generates the future pattern of I. scapularis across the United States.

Environmentally Related Variability in Risk of Exposure to Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Northern California: Effect of Climatic Conditions and Habitat Type

Data clearly show significant variability in seasonal as well as spatial risk of exposure to Lyme disease spirochetes within a small but ecologically, diverse geographic area, and temporally dynamic and spatially explicit models are needed to assess the risk of Exposure to tick-borne pathogens at spatial scales encompassing diverse climatologic or ecological conditions.

Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic

Evidence is presented that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using Lyme disease as a model, and that mice are neither the primary host for ticks nor the primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi ss.

Studies on the ecology of Lyme disease in a deer forest in County Galway, Ireland.

It is suggested that mice rather than deer may be the important reservoir hosts of B. burgdorferi in this habitat and that deer, by feeding many larvae, probably contribute large numbers of uninfected ticks to the population.

Climate, Deer, Rodents, and Acorns as Determinants of Variation in Lyme-Disease Risk

It is concluded that interannual variation in entomological risk of exposure to Lyme disease is correlated positively with prior abundance of key hosts for the immature stages of the tick vector and with critical food resources for those hosts.

Assessing peridomestic entomological factors as predictors for Lyme disease

Although entomologic risk factors tended to be higher at residences with cases of Lyme disease, entomological indices were not useful predictors of Lyme Disease at the scale of individual residences in a tick-endemic community.

Epidemiology of lyme borreliosis.

This chapter summarizes the up-to-date knowledge about facts and factors important in the epidemiology of LB all over the world and recommends a more thorough epidemiological surveillance for LB, including morbidity notification in some additional countries where it has not yet been fully implemented.

Biodiversity and Disease Risk: the Case of Lyme Disease

A conceptual model of how high species richness and evenness in communities of terrestrial vertebrates may reduce risk of exposure to Lyme disease and suggests that increases in species diversity within host communities may dilute the power of white‐footed mice to infect ticks by causing more ticks to feed on inefficient disease reservoirs.