Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Review. Part 2: Characterization of Pathophysiology

  title={Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Review. Part 2: Characterization of Pathophysiology},
  author={Justin M. Hintze and Christy L. Ludlow and Stephen F. Bansberg and Charles H. Adler and David G. Lott},
  journal={Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery},
  pages={558 - 564}
Objective The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances in characterizing spasmodic dysphonia. Spasmodic dysphonia is a task-specific focal laryngeal dystonia characterized by irregular and uncontrolled voice breaks. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, and there are diagnostic difficulties. Data Sources PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Review Methods The data sources were searched using the following search terms: (spasmodic dysphonia or laryngeal dystonia… 

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