Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Review. Part 2: Characterization of Pathophysiology

@article{Hintze2017SpasmodicDA,
  title={Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Review. Part 2: Characterization of Pathophysiology},
  author={Justin M. Hintze and Christy L. Ludlow and Stephen F. Bansberg and Charles H. Adler and David G. Lott},
  journal={Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery},
  year={2017},
  volume={157},
  pages={558 - 564}
}
Objective The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances in characterizing spasmodic dysphonia. Spasmodic dysphonia is a task-specific focal laryngeal dystonia characterized by irregular and uncontrolled voice breaks. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, and there are diagnostic difficulties. Data Sources PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Review Methods The data sources were searched using the following search terms: (spasmodic dysphonia or laryngeal dystonia… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

How can we make better decisions about dystonic voice management?
TLDR
Improvements in clinical decision-making can be made by acknowledging that their limited understanding of vocal dystonia may hinder what therapeutic interventions the authors can offer, yet the ability to accurately diagnose the dySTONia is central to providing optimal patient management.
Laboratory Evaluation of Spasmodic Dysphonia.
Dystonia: diagnosis and management
TLDR
There is still no validation of diagnostic criteria for the different dystonia syndromes, and many cases with mild phenomenology remain undiagnosed; a synthetic review on patient management is provided here.
Laryngeal Sensory Symptoms in Spasmodic Dysphonia.
Spasmodic Dysphonia in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment With Botulin Toxin A: A Pilot Study.
Movement Disorders and Voice.
Otolaryngologic Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis: A Review
TLDR
Clinicians should be aware of otolaryngologic symptoms of multiple sclerosis, especially when they are associated to neurologic symptoms, as they may be early signs of a still undiagnosed multiple sclerosis or could help monitor disease progression in already diagnosed patients.
Hyperactive sensorimotor cortex during voice perception in spasmodic dysphonia
TLDR
The sensorsimotor cortex and thalamus play a central role in SD pathophysiology and sensorimotor signals can be a new biomarker for SD diagnosis.
Retrospective review of dosing trends in botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia in a long-term cohort
TLDR
The majority of patients in this study had decreasing BT injection dosages over time, with a smaller proportion having slowly increasing doses, thought to be likely relating to disease severity.
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 36 REFERENCES
Research priorities in spasmodic dysphonia
  • C. Ludlow, C. Adler, G. Woodson
  • Medicine
    Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • 2008
Refractory Dysphonia Due to Isolated Cricothyroid Muscle Dystonia.
Value of Laryngeal Electromyography in Spasmodic Dysphonia Diagnosis and Therapy
TLDR
SD could be diagnosed, and the therapeutic efficacy of SD treatments could be evaluated based on clinical characteristics combined with LEMG characteristics, as the increased amplitudes of the recruitment potentials and EPs of the thyroarytenoid muscle were the characteristic indexes.
The role of laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of spasmodic dysphonia.
TLDR
The diagnosis of SD during examination is based primarily on auditory cues, and laryngoscopy serves an important role in the diagnosis by excluding other pathologic causes and identifying vocal tremor.
Spasmodic dysphonia: let's look at that again.
  • T. Murry
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation
  • 2014
Muscle Tension Dysphonia and Spasmodic Dysphonia: The Role of Manual Laryngeal Tension Reduction in Diagnosis and Management
TLDR
This report demonstrates the application of manual laryngeal musculoskeletal tension reduction techniques in the diagnosis and management of larynGEal hyperfunction syndromes.
Differentiation of adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia from muscle tension dysphonia by spectral analysis
Cortical Silent Period Reveals Differences Between Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia and Muscle Tension Dysphonia
TLDR
Differences in the cortical measure of both the FDI and masseter muscles in AdSD suggest widespread dysfunction of the GABAB mechanism may be a pathophysiologic feature of AdSD, similar to other forms of focal dystonia.
Adductor Muscle Activity Abnormalities in Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia
TLDR
An asymmetry in adductor muscle tone between the 2 sides in ABSD may account for difficulties with maintaining phonation and voice onset after volceless consonants.
...
1
2
3
4
...