Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice

@article{Dempster1989SpacingEA,
  title={Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice},
  author={Frank N. Dempster},
  journal={Educational Psychology Review},
  year={1989},
  volume={1},
  pages={309-330}
}
  • F. N. Dempster
  • Published 1 December 1989
  • Psychology
  • Educational Psychology Review
There is considerable evidence, gathered in a variety of settings and across many different types of materials and procedures, that spaced repetitions—regardless of whether they are in the form of additional study opportunities or successful tests—are a highly effective means of promoting learning. Research on spacing effects is reviewed and its theoretical and educational implications are examined. It is concluded that spacing effects can best be understood in terms of the “accessibility… 
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The results suggest that, at least for function concepts, massed training is not superior to spaced training for concept learning.
Current Directions in Psychological Science ( in press version 2007 ) Increasing Retention without Increasing Study Time
Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that provide long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is
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The spacing effect would appear to have considerable potential for improving classroom learning, yet there is no evidence of its widespread application. I consider nine possible impediments to the
Effects of Spacing Repetitions on Children's Memory.
The spacing effect in free recall emerges with development
TLDR
This finding that the spacing effect in free recall emerges with development suggests that the phenomenon cannot be explained solely in terms of a primitive encoding mechanism that is hard-wired into the memory system.
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A theory of spacing effects is described that uses the same principles to account for both facilitatory and inhibitory effects of spacing in a number of memory paradigms.
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