Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice

  title={Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice},
  author={Frank N. Dempster},
  journal={Educational Psychology Review},
  • F. N. Dempster
  • Published 1 December 1989
  • Psychology
  • Educational Psychology Review
There is considerable evidence, gathered in a variety of settings and across many different types of materials and procedures, that spaced repetitions—regardless of whether they are in the form of additional study opportunities or successful tests—are a highly effective means of promoting learning. Research on spacing effects is reviewed and its theoretical and educational implications are examined. It is concluded that spacing effects can best be understood in terms of the “accessibility… 
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The spacing effect in free recall emerges with development
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Component-levels theory of the effects of spacing of repetitions on recall and recognition
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Spacing effects in picture memory
Three experiments were conducted in testing the hypothesis that the effect of spacing on memory is due to rehearsal, and it was concluded that the spacing effect is primarily a function of the duration of the spacing interval.
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] examined the applicability of the encoding variability hypothesis and the spacing phenomenon to vocabulary learning in five experiments. I manipulated encoding variability by varying the number of
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Taking a test on content that has just been studied is known to enhance later retention of the material studied, but is testing more profitable than the same amount of time spent in review? High
Spacing repetitions and solving problems are not the same