Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults.

  title={Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults.},
  author={Nate Kornell and Alan D. Castel and Teal S Eich and Robert A. Bjork},
  journal={Psychology and aging},
  volume={25 2},
We compared the effects of spaced versus massed practice on young and older adults' ability to learn visually complex paintings. We expected a spacing advantage when 1 painting per artist was studied repeatedly and tested (repetition) but perhaps a massing advantage, especially for older adults, when multiple different paintings by each artist were studied and tested (induction). We were surprised to find that spacing facilitated both inductive and repetition learning by both young and older… 

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Commentary: Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults
Results show that inductive learning was better following a spaced presentation rather than a massed presentation and that this finding was independent of age, and the importance of emotion—cognition interactions in various domains is highlighted.
The spacing effect in older and younger adults: does context matter?
Age-related memory change has been a topic of much investigation in recent years, including spacing benefits and reliance on contextual cues, but context change eliminated the spacing benefit for both age groups.
Is spacing really the “friend of induction”?
The present replication attempt revealed a medium-sized advantage of spacing over massing in inductive learning, which was comparable to the original effect in the experiment by Kornell and Bjork (2008), and the 95% confidence intervals of the effect sizes from both experiments overlapped considerably.
Spacing enhances the learning of natural concepts: an investigation of mechanisms, metacognition, and aging
It is revealed that spacing enhanced learning beyond massed study and metacognitive measures revealed sensitivity to the processing advantage of spaced study and to differences in classification difficulty across categories.
The Spacing Effect in Children's Generalization of Knowledge: Allowing Children Time to Forget Promotes Their Ability to Learn
Distributing learning events in time promotes memory to a greater degree than massing learning together in immediate succession, a phenomenon known as the spacing effect. In this article, I review
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It is suggested that spacing benefited the long-term memory of older adults, however the effect was diminished and qualitatively different from that of younger adults.
Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts.
Early elementary school children were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced, and results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts.
When twice is better than once: increased liking of repeated items influences memory in younger and older adults
Investigating whether changes in liking due to repetition may have a differential impact on subsequent memories in younger and older adults found that older adults remembered spaced stimuli that they liked most better than younger adults.


Expanded vs. Equal Interval Spaced Retrieval Practice: Exploring Different Schedules of Spacing and Retention Interval in Younger and Older Adults
  • J. Logan, D. Balota
  • Psychology
    Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition
  • 2008
Although there were no robust advantages for expanded retrieval compared to equal interval practice, there could be certain advantages to using expanded retrieval depending on the ultimate goals of an individual memory training program.
Does expanded retrieval produce benefits over equal-interval spacing? Explorations of spacing effects in healthy aging and early stage Alzheimer's disease.
Three experiments explored different schedules of retrieval practice in young adults, older adults, and individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type, finding no evidence of a difference between expanded and equal-interval conditions in final cued recall.
Age-related differences in the impact of spacing, lag, and retention interval.
Compared with younger adults, older adults are suggested to encode less contextual information at a given point in time and have a slower rate of contextual fluctuation across time.
Examining the Spacing Effect in Advertising: Encoding Variability, Retrieval Processes, and Their Interaction
Recall of print material benefits from spacing repetitions of that material, an effect often attributed to varied encodings induced by changes in contextual cues. We examined an alternative
Older Adults Encode—But Do Not Always Use—Perceptual Details
The results suggest that the older adults encoded details but used them less effectively than the younger adults in the recognition context requiring their deliberate, controlled use.
Learning Concepts and Categories
Surprisingly, induction profited from spacing, even though massing apparently created a sense of fluent learning: Participants rated massing as more effective than spacing,even after their own test performance had demonstrated the opposite.
Memory for grocery prices in younger and older adults: the role of schematic support.
The results suggest that when older adults can rely on prior knowledge and schematic support, and tasks involve naturalistic materials, memory for associative information can be as good as that of younger adults.
Component-levels theory of the effects of spacing of repetitions on recall and recognition
A theory of spacing effects is described that uses the same principles to account for both facilitatory and inhibitory effects of spacing in a number of memory paradigms.