Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults.

@article{Kornell2010SpacingAT,
  title={Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults.},
  author={Nate Kornell and Alan D. Castel and Teal S Eich and Robert A. Bjork},
  journal={Psychology and aging},
  year={2010},
  volume={25 2},
  pages={
          498-503
        }
}
We compared the effects of spaced versus massed practice on young and older adults' ability to learn visually complex paintings. We expected a spacing advantage when 1 painting per artist was studied repeatedly and tested (repetition) but perhaps a massing advantage, especially for older adults, when multiple different paintings by each artist were studied and tested (induction). We were surprised to find that spacing facilitated both inductive and repetition learning by both young and older… 

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Commentary: Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults
TLDR
Results show that inductive learning was better following a spaced presentation rather than a massed presentation and that this finding was independent of age, and the importance of emotion—cognition interactions in various domains is highlighted.
The spacing effect in older and younger adults: does context matter?
TLDR
Age-related memory change has been a topic of much investigation in recent years, including spacing benefits and reliance on contextual cues, but context change eliminated the spacing benefit for both age groups.
Is spacing really the “friend of induction”?
TLDR
The present replication attempt revealed a medium-sized advantage of spacing over massing in inductive learning, which was comparable to the original effect in the experiment by Kornell and Bjork (2008), and the 95% confidence intervals of the effect sizes from both experiments overlapped considerably.
Spacing enhances the learning of natural concepts: an investigation of mechanisms, metacognition, and aging
TLDR
It is revealed that spacing enhanced learning beyond massed study and metacognitive measures revealed sensitivity to the processing advantage of spaced study and to differences in classification difficulty across categories.
The Spacing Effect in Children's Generalization of Knowledge: Allowing Children Time to Forget Promotes Their Ability to Learn
Distributing learning events in time promotes memory to a greater degree than massing learning together in immediate succession, a phenomenon known as the spacing effect. In this article, I review
Diminished but not forgotten: effects of aging on magnitude of spacing effect benefits.
TLDR
It is suggested that spacing benefited the long-term memory of older adults, however the effect was diminished and qualitatively different from that of younger adults.
Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts.
TLDR
Early elementary school children were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced, and results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts.
When twice is better than once: increased liking of repeated items influences memory in younger and older adults
TLDR
Investigating whether changes in liking due to repetition may have a differential impact on subsequent memories in younger and older adults found that older adults remembered spaced stimuli that they liked most better than younger adults.
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