Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists

@article{Kahana2005SpacingAL,
  title={Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists},
  author={Michael Jacob Kahana and Marc W Howard},
  journal={Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review},
  year={2005},
  volume={12},
  pages={159-164}
}
Repeating list items leads to better recall when the repetitions are separated by several unique items than when they are presented successively; thespacing effect refers to improved recall for spaced versus successive repetition (lag > 0 vs. lag = 0); thelag effect refers to improved recall for long lags versus short lags. Previous demonstrations of the lag effect have utilized lists containing a mixture of items with varying degrees of spacing. Because differential rehearsal of items in mixed… 

Figures from this paper

SPACING AND LAG EFFECTS IN RECOGNITION MEMORY: TIME VERSUS INTERVENING ITEMS
Spacing and lag effects both refer to abundant findings that memory is enhanced when repeated items are spaced. Several researchers have realized the difficulty of explaining these effects using only
Rehearsal strategies can enlarge or diminish the spacing effect: pure versus mixed lists and encoding strategy.
TLDR
Rehearse-aloud protocols showed that rehearsal borrowing redistributed study from massed to spaced items on mixed lists, especially during massed presentations.
A retrieved context account of spacing and repetition effects in free recall.
  • Lynn L Siegel, M. Kahana
  • Psychology, Business
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2014
TLDR
Recovered context theory offers an integrated explanation for repetition and spacing effects in free recall tasks, and predictions of a computational model that embodies retrieved context theory are considered.
Context retrieval and context change in free recall: recalling from long-term memory drives list isolation.
  • Yoonhee Jang, D. Huber
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2008
TLDR
Three experiments used the "list-before-the-last" free recall paradigm to investigate retrieval for context and the manner in which context changes, suggesting that the act of recalling drives context change, thus isolating the target list from interference.
Repetition Free Recall Performance 1 0 . 30 Í Category Clustering
One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied
Empirical and theoretical limits on lag recency in free recall
TLDR
A reanalysis of 14 data sets shows that, contrary to the presumed preference for short lags, people often produce transitions with larger lags during recall, which means that the TCM requires further modification and development before it can explain the data that constitute its main source of support.
Short-term memory for pictures seen once or twice
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 48 REFERENCES
Unmixing effects of spacing on free recall.
In 3 unmixed-list free-recall experiments, total recall was as high for lists that contained massed repetitions as for those containing spaced repetitions. This finding and differences between spaced
Contextual variability and serial position effects in free recall.
TLDR
Both the end of list Recency effect and the lag recency effect, across all distractor conditions, can be explained by a single-store model in which context, retrieved with each recalled item, serves as a cue for subsequent recalls.
Associative asymmetry in probed recall of serial lists
TLDR
This work investigates the effects of study direction on probed recall of word triples and serial lists and suggests a discontinuity between the associative processes support memory for pairs and those supporting memory for sequences of three or more items.
Component-levels theory of the effects of spacing of repetitions on recall and recognition
TLDR
A theory of spacing effects is described that uses the same principles to account for both facilitatory and inhibitory effects of spacing in a number of memory paradigms.
Influences of retrieval processes on the spacing effect in free recall
A two-process theory of the spacing effect in free recall is presented and tested. The first process, differential organization, produces a positive correlation between the spacing of the
Age-related differences in the impact of spacing, lag, and retention interval.
TLDR
Compared with younger adults, older adults are suggested to encode less contextual information at a given point in time and have a slower rate of contextual fluctuation across time.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...