Spacing Effects in Learning

@article{Cepeda2008SpacingEI,
  title={Spacing Effects in Learning},
  author={Nicholas Cepeda and Edward Vul and Doug Rohrer and John T. Wixted and Harold Pashler},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={19},
  pages={1095 - 1102}
}
To achieve enduring retention, people must usually study information on multiple occasions. How does the timing of study events affect retention? Prior research has examined this issue only in a spotty fashion, usually with very short time intervals. In a study aimed at characterizing spacing effects over significant durations, more than 1,350 individuals were taught a set of facts and—after a gap of up to 3.5 months—given a review. A final test was administered at a further delay of up to 1… 

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  • Lin Guo
  • Psychology
    The Language Learning Journal
  • 2018
TLDR
The results suggested that memory is susceptible to decay and disruption after retrieval, and testing might not insulate memory strength and content from modification, but repeated retrievals might reduce the susceptibility to interference.

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TLDR
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TLDR
This research shows that even when the benefits of lag are eliminated at a (relatively long) one-day retention interval, the lag effect reemerges after a one-week retention interval.

Maximizing Students' Retention Via Spaced Review: Practical Guidance From Computational Models Of Memory

TLDR
Simulation studies exploring the impact of study schedule on long-term retention suggest that an optimal review schedule obtains significant benefits over haphazard (suboptimal) review schedules and identify two scheduling heuristics that obtain near optimal review performance.

The spacing effect and metacognitive control.

TLDR
A closer examination of this paradigm reveals that item-selection issues might alternatively explain the disappearance of the spacing effect and suggests spacing is less effective (or possibly ineffective) if implemented against the wishes of the learner.

Optimising retention through multiple study opportunities over days: The benefit of an expanding schedule of repetitions

TLDR
It is suggested that the benefit of an expanding schedule may be greater when the RI is longer, and the study-phase retrieval hypothesis predicts that, under these circumstances, expanding intervals between repetitions will promote the greatest likelihood that the participant will be reminded of previous occurrences of the item, thus leading to a benefit for subsequent recall.

An Examination of the Testing and Spacing Effects in a Middle Grades Social Studies Classroom

This study investigates the relation between review spacing and question format on student retention. Participants in an 8th grade Georgia Studies class reviewed previously learned material either in
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