High order harmonics from relativistic electron spikes
The Nam aberration of a flat-field extreme ultraviolet spectrograph system, composed of a varied line-spacing concave grating and a toroidal mirror, was analyzed by calculating the wave-front aberration with respect to an astigmatic reference surface. The toroidal mirror was used to compensate for the astigmatism that was due to the grazing incidence of light at the concave grating. The spectrograph system could form a space-resolved spectrum along the sagittal direction. The spectral and spatial resolutions of the spectrograph system were estimated from the root-mean-square spot size. The actual spectral resolution of the spectrograph system was measured from extreme ultraviolet spectra obtained from plasmas produced by an iodine laser having an energy of 0.5 J in a 4-ns duration, and it was compared with the calculated value.