Space climate and space weather over the past 400 years: 1. The power input to the magnetosphere

  title={Space climate and space weather over the past 400 years: 1. The power input to the magnetosphere},
  author={Mike Lockwood and Mathew J. Owens and Luke A. Barnard and Chris J. Scott and Clare E. J. Watt},
  journal={Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate},
Using information on geomagnetic activity, sunspot numbers and cosmogenic isotopes, supported by historic eclipse images and in conjunction with models, it has been possible to reconstruct annual means of solar wind speed and number density and heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) intensity since 1611, when telescopic observations of sunspots began. These models are developed and tuned using data recorded by near-Earth interplanetary spacecraft and by solar magnetograms over the past 53 years. In… 
Space climate and space weather over the past 400 years: 2. Proxy indicators of geomagnetic storm and substorm occurrence
Using the reconstruction of power input to the magnetosphere presented in Paper 1 Lockwood  et al. [J Space Weather Space Clim 7 (2017a)], we reconstruct annual means of the geomagnetic Ap and AE
The Development of a Space Climatology: 1. Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling as a Function of Timescale and the Effect of Data Gaps
Different terrestrial space weather indicators (such as geomagnetic indices, transpolar voltage, and ring current particle content) depend on different coupling functions (combinations of near‐Earth
The Development of a Space Climatology: 3. Models of the Evolution of Distributions of Space Weather Variables With Timescale
We study how the probability distribution functions of power input to the magnetosphere Pα and of the geomagnetic ap and Dst indices vary with averaging timescale, τ, between 3 hr and 1 year. From
The Development of a Space Climatology: 2. The Distribution of Power Input Into the Magnetosphere on a 3‐Hourly Timescale
Paper 1 in this series (Lockwood et al., 2018a, showed that the power input into the magnetosphere Pα is an ideal coupling function for predicting geomagnetic
Reproducible Aspects of the Climate of Space Weather Over the Last Five Solar Cycles
Each solar maximum interval has a different duration and peak activity level, which is reflected in the behavior of key physical variables that characterize solar and solar wind driving and
Ion Charge States and Potential Geoeffectiveness: The Role of Coronal Spectroscopy for Space‐Weather Forecasting
Severe space weather is driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), episodic eruptions of solar plasma, and magnetic flux that travel out through the heliosphere and can perturb the
On Optimum Solar Wind‐Magnetosphere Coupling Functions for Transpolar Voltage and Planetary Geomagnetic Activity
Using 65,133 hourly averages of transpolar voltage (ΦPC) from observations made over 25 yr by the SuperDARN radars, with simultaneous SML and interpolated am geomagnetic indices, we study their
Separating polar ionospheric and lithospheric magnetic signals in satellite data
Both the interior of the Earth and near-Earth space contain a variety of interacting magnetic field sources, which together make up the “geomagnetic field”. When a magnetic field measurement is made,
Space Weather at Earth and in Our Solar System
  • N. Lugaz
  • Physics, Geology
    The Sun as a Guide to Stellar Physics
  • 2019
Evolution of the Sunspot Number and Solar Wind B$B$ Time Series
The past two decades have witnessed significant changes in our knowledge of long-term solar and solar wind activity. The sunspot number time series (1700-present) developed by Rudolf Wolf during the


Global solar wind variations over the last four centuries
The first quantitative estimate of global solar wind variations over the last 400 years is produced using nearly 30 years of output from a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona to calibrate heliospheric reconstructions based solely on sunspot observations.
The solar wind at the turn of the century
GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY is driven by the solar wind, so information on the past history of the wind can be derived from studies of geomagnetic indices1–3. Comparison of geomagnetic activity and sunspot
Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions on timescales of 1 day to 1 year
Abstract. There are no direct observational methods for determining the total rate at which energy is extracted from the solar wind by the magnetosphere. In the absence of such a direct measurement,
Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr – Part 4: Near-Earth solar wind speed, IMF, and open solar flux
Abstract. In the concluding paper of this tetralogy, we here use the different geomagnetic activity indices to reconstruct the near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind flow
Near‐Earth heliospheric magnetic field intensity since 1750: 2. Cosmogenic radionuclide reconstructions
This is Part 2 of a study of the near‐Earth heliospheric magnetic field strength, B, since 1750. Part 1 produced composite estimates of B from geomagnetic and sunspot data over the period 1750–2013.
Reconstruction and Prediction of Variations in the Open Solar Magnetic Flux and Interplanetary Conditions
Historic geomagnetic activity observations have been used to reveal centennial variations in the open solar flux and the near-Earth heliospheric conditions (the interplanetary magnetic field and the
Inferring the Heliospheric Magnetic Field Back through Maunder Minimum
Recent solar conditions include a prolonged solar minimum (2005–2009) and a solar maximum that has not fully recovered in terms of the Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) strength when compared to the
We use geomagnetic activity data to study the rise and fall over the past century of the solar wind flow speed V SW, the interplanetary magnetic field strength B, and the open solar flux F S. Our
Near‐Earth heliospheric magnetic field intensity since 1750: 1. Sunspot and geomagnetic reconstructions
We present two separate time series of the near‐Earth heliospheric magnetic field strength (B) based on geomagnetic data and sunspot number (SSN). The geomagnetic‐based B series from 1845 to 2013 is
A doubling of the Sun's coronal magnetic field during the past 100 years
The solar wind is an extended ionized gas of very high electrical conductivity, and therefore drags some magnetic flux out of the Sun to fill the heliosphere with a weak interplanetary magnetic