Sox21 promotes the progression of vertebrate neurogenesis

  title={Sox21 promotes the progression of vertebrate neurogenesis},
  author={Magnus Sandberg and Magdalena K{\"a}llstr{\"o}m and Jonas Muhr},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
The generation of neurons constitutes the foundation of nervous system development, yet the mechanisms underlying neurogenesis are not well established. The HMG-box transcription factors Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 (Sox1–3) have previously been shown to suppress neurogenesis by maintaining neural cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we report that another HMG-box protein, Sox21, has the opposite activity and promotes neuronal differentiation. Using genetic studies in the chick embryo, we found that… 

The establishment of neuronal properties is controlled by Sox4 and Sox11.

It is shown that the HMG-box transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 are of critical importance, downstream from proneural bHLH proteins, for the establishment of pan-neuronal protein expression.

Regulation of neurogenesis in the vertebrate CNS

The role of Sox21 is investigated during the progression of neurogenesis in the chick spinal cord and it is found that Sox1-3 proteins have the ability to maintain progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state and suppress neuronal differentiation.

Sox21 Promotes Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis via the Transcriptional Repression of the Hes5 Gene

Sox21 controls hippocampal adult neurogenesis via transcriptional repression of the Hes5 gene, a downstream effector of Sox21 at the point where the Notch and Sox pathways intersect to control the number of neurons in the adult hippocampus.

Development: Odd SOX

  • A. Rowan
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2005
This elegant study highlights a synergistic relationship between proneural proteins and SOX21 in their regulation of neuronal formation, thereby providing an important advance in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in neurogenesis.

Transcription factor Sox11 is essential for both embryonic and adult neurogenesis

Evidence is provided that Sox11 is required for both embryonic and adult neurogenesis, and potential downstream target genes of Sox11 are identified using functional genomics.

C. elegans SoxB genes are dispensable for embryonic neurogenesis but required for terminal differentiation of specific neuron types

It is suggested that the common themes of SoxB gene function across phylogeny lie in specifying developmental potential and, later on, in selectively controlling terminal differentiation programs of specific neuron types, but not in broadly controlling neurogenesis.

SOX Transcription Factors as Important Regulators of Neuronal and Glial Differentiation During Nervous System Development and Adult Neurogenesis

The roles of SOX TFs in adult neurogenesis and brain homeostasis are outlined and whether impaired adult neuroGenesis, detected in neurodegenerative diseases, could be associated with deregulation of SoX proteins activities is discussed.

The Role of Sox 21 in Development of the Mammalian Central Nervous System

The ability of both Sox5 and Sox6 to be capable of reproducing the neuronal induction seen when Sox21 is overexpressed in the neural tube is shown, and the integrity of GABA receptor patterning in the cortex is examined.

SOX after SOX: SOXession regulates neurogenesis.

The genome-wide binding profile of Sox2, Sox3, and Sox11 as ES cells become specified to neural precursors and differentiate into neurons is determined, and an ordered, sequential binding of these Sox proteins to a common set of gene enhancers was found to drive neurogenesis.



Vertebrate neurogenesis is counteracted by Sox1–3 activity

It is reported that expression of the transcription factors Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 (Sox1–3) is a critical determinant of neurogenesis and the generation of neurons from stem cells depends on the inhibition of Sox1-3 expression by proneural proteins.

A role for SOX1 in neural determination.

SOX1, an HMG-box protein related to SRY, is one of the earliest transcription factors to be expressed in ectodermal cells committed to the neural fate: the onset of expression of SOX1 appears to coincide with the induction of neural ectoderm.

SOX2 Functions to Maintain Neural Progenitor Identity

Sox21 is a repressor of neuronal differentiation and is antagonized by YB-1

Hes6 acts in a positive feedback loop with the neurogenins to promote neuronal differentiation.

The isolation and characterization of Hes6 is described, which encodes a novel WRPW-bHLH protein expressed during neurogenesis in mouse and Xenopus embryos, and it is shown that Hes6 expression follows that of neurogenins but precedes that of the neuronal differentiation genes.

Generation of neurons by transient expression of neural bHLH proteins in mammalian cells.

It is shown that transient transfection of vectors expressing neuroD2, MASH1, ngn1 or related neural bHLH proteins, with their putative dimerization partner E12, can convert mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells into differentiated neurons.

Muscle Differentiation Is Antagonized by SOX15, a New Member of the SOX Protein Family*

Results suggest a specific and repressive role for SOX15, requiring the C-terminal domain, during myogenesis, which was uncovered during a screen for high mobility group box containing transcription factors that are expressed at different levels during skeletal muscle differentiation.