Sowing Patriotism, But Reaping Nationalism? Consequences of Exposure to the American Flag

@article{Kemmelmeier2008SowingPB,
  title={Sowing Patriotism, But Reaping Nationalism? Consequences of Exposure to the American Flag},
  author={Markus Kemmelmeier and David G. Winter},
  journal={Political Psychology},
  year={2008},
  volume={29},
  pages={859-879}
}
The American flag is a frequently displayed national symbol in the United States. Given its high visibility and importance, the present research examines the consequences of exposure to the flag on Americans' sense of national attachment. We hypothesized that the flag would increase patriotism, defined as love and commitment to one's country, and nationalism, defined as a sense of superiority over others. Two experimental studies supported the idea that the American flag increased nationalism… 

Tables from this paper

Blind and constructive patriotism, national symbols and outgroup attitudes.

The results emphasize the essential role of the specific meaning associated to the nation when studying patriotism and its relation to outgroup attitudes.

The national flag: An agent of prejudice?

This study explored significant effects on prejudice towards foreigners expressed by Maltese individuals when exposed to the Maltese national flag, taking into consideration their nationalistic and

Political ideology and American intergroup discrimination: A patriotism perspective

The powerful role of ingroup favoritism, rather than hostility, in American intergroup biases is demonstrated, and the link between patriotism and partiality to the national group is mediated by stronger “American = White” associations.

Flagging nationalism: Some thoughts on the nature of provocation

This paper considers the media frenzy and public outcry that surrounded the publication of findings of a relationship between the flying of Australian flags on cars for Australia Day and racist

Beware of National Symbols

The present research examined effects of exposure to the German flag on outgroup prejudice in Germany. In agreement with social identity theory, we demonstrated that exposure to the German flag

Flagging Exclusionary Nationalism

After an outline of the history, design and uses of the Australian flag, this paper considers the media frenzy and public outcry surrounding the publication of research findings identifying a

Nationalism in the produce aisle: Using country of origin labels to stir patriotism and animosity

This study aims to determine how feelings of nationalism or patriotism for one's own country and feelings of animosity for countries that are in political conflict affect consumers’ willingness to

Patriotism, Nationalism and China's US Policy: Structures and Consequences of Chinese National Identity

Abstract What is the nature of Chinese patriotism and nationalism, how does it differ from American patriotism and nationalism, and what impact do they have on Chinese foreign policy attitudes? To

Biblical Patriotism: An Evangelical Alternative to Nationalism

In the Deep South of the United States, there has been a strong respect placed on the value of God and country, and this was always seen as a virtue. However, over the past few years, a healthy view
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 68 REFERENCES

What Does It Mean to Be an American? Patriotism, Nationalism, and American Identity After 9/11

The period of heightened nationalism in the United States that followed the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 provided unusual conditions for investigating issues surrounding the distinction

Patriotism or Nationalism? Understanding Post-September 11, 2001, Flag-Display Behavior1

People reacted to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in a number of different ways. One reaction was to display the American flag on one's home, car, or person. The goal of this research was

Flag desecration in American culture: Offenses against civil religion and a consecrated symbol of nationalism

Adoration for the United States flag is emblematic of American nationalism and patriotism. Moreover, in extreme forms, its rigid orthodoxy also reflects civil religion — a non-sectarian faith in

Liberty and Justice for All? Implications of Exposure to the U.S. Flag for Intergroup Relations

Three studies examined the implications of nationalistic ideologies and exposure to the U.S. flag for the activation of egalitarian concepts and outgroup hostility and found that for participants high in nationalism, greater activation ofegalitarian concepts on subliminal exposure toThe U.s. flag activated participants' egalitarian concepts.

National Identity in a United Germany: Nationalism or Patriotism? An Empirical Test With Representative Data

Nationalism and patriotism can be thought of as consequences of national identity that represent positive evaluations of one's own group but imply different social goals. This paper investigates the

For Love of Country: An Essay on Patriotism and Nationalism

Nationalism and patriotism are two of the most powerful forces shaping world history. Though seen by many as two sides of the same coin, they have come to have widely different connotations.

Are Patriots Bigots? An Inquiry into the Vices of In-Group Pride

One view in the study of intergroup conflict is that pride implies prejudice. However, an increasing number of scholars have come to view in-group pride more benignly, suggesting that such pride can

“United” We Stand: Responses to the September 11 Attacks in Black and White

The September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States presented a threat to all citizens that seemed unrelated to racial status or internal struggles for power or privilege. This article describes the

Nationalism, Patriotism, and Aggression

Human aggression entails a complex set of behaviors that vary markedly in structure, content, context, and consequences. An angry feeling, a thought of revenge, jostling and “horse-play,” teasing and

The Other “Authoritarian Personality”

Publisher Summary It is noted with regard to the submissive personality, it is visualized that this personality structure, observable in early adulthood and better explained by social learning than
...