Sowing Patriotism, But Reaping Nationalism? Consequences of Exposure to the American Flag

  title={Sowing Patriotism, But Reaping Nationalism? Consequences of Exposure to the American Flag},
  author={Markus Kemmelmeier and David G. Winter},
  journal={Political Psychology},
The American flag is a frequently displayed national symbol in the United States. Given its high visibility and importance, the present research examines the consequences of exposure to the flag on Americans' sense of national attachment. We hypothesized that the flag would increase patriotism, defined as love and commitment to one's country, and nationalism, defined as a sense of superiority over others. Two experimental studies supported the idea that the American flag increased nationalism… 

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