South-polar features on Venus similar to those near the north pole

  title={South-polar features on Venus similar to those near the north pole},
  author={Giuseppe Piccioni and Pierre Drossart and Agust{\'i}n S{\'a}nchez-Lavega and Ricardo Hueso and Fredric W. Taylor and C. F. Wilson and Davide Grassi and L. V. Zasova and Maria Luisa Moriconi and Alberto Adriani and S{\'e}bastien Lebonnois and Angioletta Coradini and Bruno B{\'e}zard and Francesco Angrilli and Gabriele Arnold and Kevin H. Baines and Giancarlo Bellucci and Johannes Benkhoff and J. P. Bibring and Armando Blanco and Maria I. Blecka and Robert W. Carlson and Andrea Maria di Lellis and Thérèse Encrenaz and St{\'e}phane Erard and Sergio Fonti and Vittorio Formisano and Thierry Fouchet and R. Garc{\'i}a and R. Haus and J. Helbert and Nikolay I. Ignatiev and Patrick G. J. Irwin and Y. Langevin and Miguel Angel Lopez‐Valverde and David Luz and Lucia Marinangeli and Vincenzo Orofino and Alexander V. Rodin and Maarten C. Roos-Serote and Bortolino Saggin and Daphne M. Stam and Dmitry Titov and Guido Visconti and Massimo Zambelli},
Venus has no seasons, slow rotation and a very massive atmosphere, which is mainly carbon dioxide with clouds primarily of sulphuric acid droplets. Infrared observations by previous missions to Venus revealed a bright ‘dipole’ feature surrounded by a cold ‘collar’ at its north pole. The polar dipole is a ‘double-eye’ feature at the centre of a vast vortex that rotates around the pole, and is possibly associated with rapid downwelling. The polar cold collar is a wide, shallow river of cold air… 
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