South American giant short-faced bear (Arctotherium angustidens) diet: evidence from pathology, morphology, stable isotopes, and biomechanics.

@inproceedings{Soibelzon2014SouthAG,
  title={South American giant short-faced bear (Arctotherium angustidens) diet: evidence from pathology, morphology, stable isotopes, and biomechanics.},
  author={Leopoldo Soibelzon and Gustavo A Grinspan and Herv{\'e} Bocherens and Walter Acosta and Washington W. Jones and Ernesto Blanco and Francisco Juan Prevosti},
  booktitle={Journal of Paleontology},
  year={2014}
}
Abstract Arctotherium angustidens Gervais and Ameghino, 1880 (the South American giant short-faced bear) is known for being the earliest (Ensenadan Age, early to middle Pleistocene) and largest (body mass over 1 ton) of five described Arctotherium species endemic to South America. Here we assess the diet of this bear from multiple proxies: morphology, biomechanics, dental pathology, stable isotopes and a previous study using geometric morphometric methodology. Results favor the idea of animal… 
Elbow Joint Geometry in Bears (Ursidae, Carnivora): a Tool to Infer Paleobiology and Functional Adaptations of Quaternary Fossils
TLDR
This study is the first to demonstrate that fragmentary distal epiphyses also can be useful for interpreting functional morphology and ecological adaptations within the family Ursidae, and analysis of variation in bears’ elbow joint size and shape to reconstruct paleobiology of Quaternary fossil species.
Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America
TLDR
A mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave is sequenced, suggesting striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears, potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses.
Direct evidence of megamammal-carnivore interaction decoded from bone marks in historical fossil collections from the Pampean region
TLDR
It is hypothesize that the analysed carnivore marks represent the last stages of megaherbivore carcass exploitation, suggesting full consumption of these animals by the same or multiple taxa in a hunting and/or scavenging scenario.
Isotopic palaeoecology (δ 13C) of three faunivores from Late Pleistocene of the Brazilian intertropical region
ABSTRACT The palaeoecology of megamammals has been commonly accessed by stable isotope. Particularly in the Americas, this approach has been focusing efforts on the study of intertropical species,
Yucatán carnivorans shed light on the Great American Biotic Interchange
TLDR
It is suggested that landscape and ecological changes caused by latest Pleistocene glaciation supported an interchange pulse that included A. wingei, P. troglodytes and Homo sapiens, and suggests a more complex history of these organisms in Middle America.
The Scope of Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics for Inferences of Diet in Carnivorous Fossil Mammals
TLDR
It is demonstrated that when using the geometric morphometrics approach, the diet of species is better reclassified than when using morphometric indices, and intraspecific variation appears fundamental when making paleoecological inferences.
Feeding ecology and habitat preferences of top predators from two Miocene carnivore-rich assemblages
TLDR
Analysis of time-successive, late Miocene carnivoran populations from two fossil sites from central Spain demonstrates the insights that stable isotopes can provide in characterizing the feeding ecology and trophic interactions of ancient carnivoran taxa.
South American Fossil Carnivorans (Order Carnivora)
Carnivora is a clade of mammalian predators that evolved in northern continents during the Paleocene, and since the Miocene have invaded the southern continents (i.e., Africa and South America). They
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 126 REFERENCES
The Largest Known Bear, Arctotherium angustidens, from the Early Pleistocene Pampean Region of Argentina: With a Discussion of Size and Diet Trends in Bears
TLDR
It is suggested that the larger size and more carnivorous nature of A. angustidens, compared to later members of the genus, may reflect the relative lack of other large carnivores and abundance of herbivores in South America just after the Great American Biotic Interchange.
First report of a South American short-faced bears' den (Arctotherium angustidens): palaeobiological and palaeoecological implications
Here we report the first example of associated short-faced bear fossils from South America. The specimens represent three individuals referable to the Ensenadan (early to middle Pleistocene) species
Inferring palaeoecology in extinct tremarctine bears (Carnivora, Ursidae) using geometric morphometrics
TLDR
The results reveal different ecomorphological specializations in extinct tremarctines during the Plio-Pleistocene of South America, which strongly supports that bears are one of the most ecologically and morphologically adaptable members of the large carnivore guild.
Diet and morphology of extant and recently extinct northern bears
TLDR
It is hypothesized that skull features associated with crushing force facilitated a carnivorous rather than herbivorous diet for short-faced bears, and hypothesized that cave bears specialized in root grubbing.
Stable carbon isotope reconstructions of diet and paleoenvironment from the late Middle Pleistocene Snake Cave in Northeastern Thailand
TLDR
It is thought that anthropological influences may be responsible for habitat and dietary changes in extant species, and bovids demonstrate the most significant shift in diet and habitat through time, from C4-dominated open habitats to C3-dominated habitats indicative of dense forest understory.
Reconstructing cave bear paleoecology from skeletons: a cross-disciplinary study of middle Pleistocene bears from Yarimburgaz Cave, Turkey
Cave bears, an extinct subgenus (Spelearctos) of Ursus, were versatile enough to inhabit large areas of the northern hemisphere during the middle and late Pleistocene, yet they had evolved a
The fossil record of South American short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae)
Tough Times at La Brea: Tooth Breakage in Large Carnivores of the Late Pleistocene
TLDR
Comparisons of tooth fracture frequencies from modern and Pleistocene carnivores imply that predator-prey dynamics and interspecific interactions must have been substantially different 36,000 to 10,000 years ago.
...
...