EEG source connectivity to localize the seizure onset zone in patients with drug resistant epilepsy
INTRODUCTION Surgical treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy relies on the identification of the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and often requires intracranial EEG (iEEG). We have developed a new approach for non-invasive magnetic and electric source imaging of the SOZ (MSI-SOZ and ESI-SOZ) from ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG recordings, using wavelet-based Maximum Entropy on the Mean (wMEM) method. We compared the performance of MSI-SOZ and ESI-SOZ with interictal spike source localization (MSI-spikes and ESI-spikes) and clinical localization of the SOZ (i.e., based on iEEG or lesion topography, denoted as clinical-SOZ). METHODS A total of 46 MEG or EEG seizures from 13 patients were analyzed. wMEM was applied around seizure onset, centered on the frequency band showing the strongest power change. Principal component analysis applied to spatiotemporal reconstructed wMEM sources (0.4-1 s around seizure onset) identified the main spatial pattern of ictal oscillations. Qualitative sublobar concordance and quantitative measures of distance and spatial overlaps were estimated to compare MSI/ESI-SOZ with MSI/ESI-Spikes and clinical-SOZ. RESULTS MSI/ESI-SOZ were concordant with clinical-SOZ in 81% of seizures (MSI 90%, ESI 64%). MSI-SOZ was more accurate and identified sources closer to the clinical-SOZ (P = 0.012) and to MSI-Spikes (P = 0.040) as compared with ESI-SOZ. MSI/ESI-SOZ and MSI/ESI-Spikes did not differ in terms of concordance and distance from the clinical-SOZ. CONCLUSIONS wMEM allows non-invasive localization of the SOZ from ictal MEG and EEG. MSI-SOZ performs better than ESI-SOZ. MSI/ESI-SOZ can provide important additional information to MSI/ESI-Spikes during presurgical evaluation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2528-2546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.