Sordes pilosus and the nature of the pterosaur flight apparatus

  title={Sordes pilosus and the nature of the pterosaur flight apparatus},
  author={David M. Unwin and Natasha N. Bakhurina},
IT is now generally accepted that pterosaurs, Mesozoic reptiles, were true fliers, but the nature of their flight apparatus is still much disputed. Evidence has been presented in favour of bird-like reconstructions with narrow, stiff wings free of the legs1–6 and bat-like reconstructions with extensive wings incorporating both fore and hind limbs7–10, but the Solnhofen Limestone pterosaurs, upon which these models are based, are not sufficiently well preserved to resolve these conflicting… 
Pterosaur integumentary structures with complex feather-like branching
Preservation in two anurognathid pterosaur specimens of morphologically diverse pycnofibres show diagnostic features of feathers, hitherto considered unique to maniraptoran dinosaurs, and preserved melanosomes with diverse geometries, which could imply that feathers had deep evolutionary origins in ancestral archosaurs.
The Extent of the Pterosaur Flight Membrane
It is strongly suggested that the trailing edge of the wing extended down to the lower leg or ankle in all specimens where the brachiopatagium is completely preserved, and is thus likely to have been universally present throughout the Pterosauria.
The origin of Pterosaurs
  • M. Baron
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2021
Palaeobiology, Morphology, and Flight Characteristics of Pterodactyloid Pterosaurs
The “crocodilian-like” sequence of suture closure between the neural arches and vertebral bodies of the thoracic vertebrae is confirmed within the azhdarchoid pterosaurs, indicating that the developmental timing between the Azhdarchoidea and Ornithocheiroidea did not significantly differ.
Limb disparity and wing shape in pterosaurs
It is shown that further differences in limb proportions exist between the two main groups: the clade of short‐tailed Pterodactyloidea and the paraphyletic clades of long‐tailed rhamphorhynchoid pterosaurs, and that the range of flight morphologies seen in these extinct reptiles may prove much broader than previously thought.
A Reappraisal of Azhdarchid Pterosaur Functional Morphology and Paleoecology
It is argued that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion, and were well suited for wading and terrestrial foraging.
Were early pterosaurs inept terrestrial locomotors?
It is argued that characteristics possibly associated with terrestriality are deeply nested within Pterosauria and not restricted to Pterodactyloidea as previously thought, and that pterodACTyloid-like levels of terrestrial competency may have been possible in at least some early pterosaurs.
Challenges and advances in the study of pterosaur flight1
In recent years, three areas of pterosaur biology have faced challenges and made advances: structure of the wing membrane, function of the pteroid, body size and mass estimates, as well as flight mechanics and aerodynamics.
New interpretation of the wings of the pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus muensteri based on the Zittel and Marsh specimens
Abstract. The Zittel wing of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri is reinterpreted as preserving negative impressions of closely spaced broad flat actinofibrils that were replaced by calcite but were prepared
A new Chinese specimen indicates that ‘protofeathers’ in the Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Sinosauropteryx are degraded collagen fibres
A new specimen of Sinosauropteryx is reported which shows that the integumental structures proposed as protofeathers are the remains of structural fibres that provide toughness.


Flight characteristics of Triassic and Jurassic Pterosauria: an appraisal based on wing shape
The reconstructed pterosaurs show a limited range of wing shape compared to birds; this may partly reflect preservational bias favoring species living in marine or lagoonal environments, but this is not a complete explanation because there is a lack of pterosaur with wings of high loading like the marine ducks and auks.
A functional analysis of flying and walking in pterosaurs
Pterosaurs bear close structural resemblances to birds and dinosaurs, to which they are most closely related phylogenetically, and a hypothesis of structural, aerodynamic, and evolutionary differences distinguishing vertebrate gliders from fliers is proposed.
Exceptionally well preserved pterosaur wing membrane from the Cretaceous of Brazil
FOSSILIZED impressions of pterosaur wing membranes are known from a number of localities1,2, but true soft-tissue preservation is extremely rare3,4. We present the first description of the internal
Terrestrial locomotion in pterosaurs
It is suggested that in pterosaurs the wing membrane was attached to the upper leg, which helped in stretching, steering and cambering.
Classical pterosaur reconstructions are variants on a ‘bat‐analogy’, whereby the wing is conceived as a simple membrane with no inherent bending strength, stretched between the arm and leg skeletons, but in recent years an alternative ‘bird‐an analogy’ has come to be generally accepted.
Ein Flugsaurier-Rest aus dem Posidonienschiefer (Unter-Toarcium) von Schandelah bei Braunschweig
A detailed stratigraphic section of the Lower Toarcian Posidonienschiefer of Schandelah near Braunschweig (Niedersachsen, West Germany) is presented, and a pterosaur pelvis from that locality
Biomechanics of Pteranodon
The fossil evidence is re-examined to determine the structure of Pteranodon ingens, and it is suggested that extinction could have been due to climatic change, particularly an increase in the average wind speed at the end of the Cretaceous.