Soothing pain-elicited distress in infants with swaddling and pacifiers.

@article{Campos1989SoothingPD,
  title={Soothing pain-elicited distress in infants with swaddling and pacifiers.},
  author={R. G. Campos},
  journal={Child development},
  year={1989},
  volume={60 4},
  pages={781-92}
}
The effectiveness of pacifiers and swaddling in reducing pain-induced distress was compared in 2-week-old infants who underwent heel-sticks and 2-month-old infants who received injections. Crying, state, and heart rate were measured on 32 infants at each age during baseline, the stress of heel-stick or injection, and during 3-min soothing intervention and postintervention periods. At 2 weeks, infants' HR levels and crying declined significantly more rapidly in the pacifier than in the swaddling… CONTINUE READING

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