Songs of Humpback Whales

@article{Payne1971SongsOH,
  title={Songs of Humpback Whales},
  author={Roger Payne and Scott McVay},
  journal={Science},
  year={1971},
  volume={173},
  pages={585 - 597}
}
1) Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a series of beautiful and varied sounds for a period of 7 to 30 minutes and then repeat the same series with considerable precision. We call such a performance "singing" and each repeated series of sounds a "song." 2) All prolonged sound patterns (recorded so far) of this species are in song form, and each individual adheres to its own song type. 3) There seem to be several song types around which whales construct their songs, but individual… 
Large Scale Changes over 19 Years in Songs of Humpback Whales in Bermuda
TLDR
163 songs of humpback whales recorded near Bermuda during April and May of 13 years between 1957 and 1975 have been analysed as continuous sound spectrograms and compared to define a song form which characterizes songs from many years.
Song copying by humpback whales: themes and variations
TLDR
Analysis of changes over 14 years in the sounds used by humpback whales singing in Hawaiian waters found that although the properties of individual sounds within songs are quite variable over time, the overall distribution of certain acoustic features within the repertoire appears to be stable.
Rhythmic structure in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) songs: preliminary implications for song production and perception.
TLDR
Results presented here demonstrate that the individual sounds are organized into rhythmic groups that make the production and perception of the lengthy songs tractable by yielding a set of simple groups that, although arranged in rigid order, can be repeated multiple times to generate the entire song.
Song Morphing by Humpback Whales: Cultural or Epiphenomenal?
TLDR
Property of song dynamics suggest that singing humpback whales may be modulating song features in response to local conditions and genetic predispositions rather than socially learning novel sound patterns by copying other singers.
The song of the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae in the West Indies
TLDR
Songs of the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae were recorded and analyzed from Grand Turks in the Bahamas to Venezuela and it is suggested that songs from other populations are quite different.
Behavioral correlations with aberrant patterns in humpback whale songs
TLDR
It is shown that when themes are sung out of sequence, the whale is at the surface, blowing, and this finding provides a link between the song structure and humpback behavior.
Extreme diversity in the songs of Spitsbergen's bowhead whales
TLDR
Members of the Spitsbergen bowhead whale population produced 184 different song types over a 3-year period, based on duty-cycled recordings from a site in Fram Strait in the northeast Atlantic.
Subarctic singers: Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song structure and progression from an Icelandic feeding ground during winter
TLDR
The results confirm that continual singing of sophisticated songs occur during the breeding season in the subarctic, and such singing activity on a shared feeding ground likely aids the cultural transmission of songs in the North Atlantic.
Recurring patterns in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)
TLDR
Analysis of humpback whale songs recorded in Hawaii from 1985 to 1995 supported the hypothesis that recurring, persistent patterns exist within whale songs, and that these patterns are defined at least in part by acoustic relationships between adjacent sounds within songs.
Hierarchical and rhythmic organization in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)
TLDR
This work proposes two properties that act to make relearning the evolving song possible, and estimates the degree of constraint using information theory and found that the theme, phrase, and prior sound unit reduced the source entropy of the current sound unit equally.
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