The lecture explores several problems of analytic number theory in the context of function fields over a finite field, where they can be approached by methods different than those of traditional analytic number theory. The resulting theorems can be used to check existing conjectures over the integers, and to generate new ones. Among the problems discussed are: Counting primes in short intervals and in arithmetic progressions; Chowla’s conjecture on the autocorrelation of the Möbius function; and the additive divisor problem. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010). Primary 11T55; Secondary 11N05, 11N13.