Some Parallels Between Gene Control Systems in Maize and in Bacteria

  title={Some Parallels Between Gene Control Systems in Maize and in Bacteria},
  author={B. Mcclintock},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={265 - 277}
  • B. Mcclintock
  • Published 1 September 1961
  • Biology
  • The American Naturalist
In this article, McClintock attempted to link the regulation of controlling elements to observations made by Francois Jacob, Jacques Monod, and Andre Lwoff on bacterial operons in 1960. In part, McClintock was trying to establish her preeminence in the study of gene regulation, but she also wanted to demonstrate that regulation was widespread among organisms. Many of the parallels she observed were not universally accepted and McClintock backed off most of her claims by 1968. 
Genetic fine structure of the leucine operon in Salmonella.
In the system described in this report, the structural genes and operator responsible for leucine synthesis have been defined, but the regulator has not yet been identified.
Controlling elements and mutable loci in maize: Their relationship to bacterial episomes
A two-unit interaction is suggestive of a form of gene control that was proposed by JACOB & MONOD (196 1) for the bacterial lac operon; an element at the locus is triggered by a second element before gene activity can occur.
The Activation of Maize Controlling Elements
A major contribution to the dynamic flux of the plant genome is the presence of discrete mobile genetic elements that can cause high rates of genetic instability including spontaneous unstable
Genetic Repression in Multicellular Organisms
The particular question with which the evidence now available for genetic repression in multicellular organisms exemplifies operation of a similar mechanism for controlling gene action at the chromosome level during development of the individual is questioned.
Bacteriophages: their role in the emergence of Molecular Biology
In this work the different approaches, researchers and laboratories involved in the emergence of a new discipline: the Molecular Biology are analyzed. Twenty-five years, from 1940 to 1965, have been
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics
  • 2004
This model of the control of genetic variation in a specific chromosomal region is significant in development as well as in evolution, and throws light on a number of hitherto “intractable” problems peculiar to the higher organisms.
Induction of Differentiated Activity of the Genes by Cytoplasmic and Chromosomal Factors and Its Role in the General Organization of Morphogenesis
There is a third part of the system of morphogenesis, as yet almost unstudied, namely its special automatic and self-generated programming apparatus.
Transposable genetic elements as agents of gene instability and chromosomal rearrangements
Transposable genetic elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, when inserted at a given locus, can control expression of the locus and cause large scale rearrangements of adjacent DNA sequences.
HASE variation of regulatory elements in maize refers to changes in functioning of these elements from periods of activity to periods of inactivity or vice versa (PETERSON 1965a). For example, a case
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Dt-TA resembles the original Dt with regard to its transposition frequency and stability, and had the same effect as Dt on the frequency and timing of aleurone mutations.


Induction of Instability at Selected Loci in Maize.
This is McClintock's only research article on controlling units to appear in a peer-reviewed journal and demonstrates that she was able to select a specific gene and make it mutable.
Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins.
The synthesis of enzymes in bacteria follows a double genetic control, which appears to operate directly at the level of the synthesis by the gene of a shortlived intermediate, or messenger, which becomes associated with the ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place.
Genetic and cytological studies of maize
In this report, McClintock described how phase changes could occur at any stage of development and on any part of the plant. By this time, McClintock began to see her system of understanding
The Suppressor-Mutator System of Control of Gene Action in Maize
This manuscript draft reflected McClintock's increasingly complex understanding of the suppressor-mutator as represented in her Carnegie Institution reports after 1956.
Structural and Functional Bases for the Action of the A Alleles in Maize
Analyses of crossover derivatives from certain heterozygotes carrying the Ab "allele" indicate that the separable elements of Ab reside in adjacent members of a duplication. Thus the occurrence, in
Controlling elements and the gene.
  • B. Mcclintock
  • Biology, Medicine
    Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology
  • 1956
This paper presented at the 1956 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium provides a brief overview of McClintock's thoughts on controlling elements, including suppressor-mutator, or Spm.
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    The Quarterly Review of Biology
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It is concluded that possibly paramutation may be a very general phenomenon that operates as an information exchanges during differentiation and development of the organism.
Curly Flagellar Mutants in Salmonella
A curly flagellar mutant obtained from a strain of Salmonella typhimurium was unstable and repeatedly dissociated ‘curly’ and normal subclones, suggesting that in each phase the mutant sites of the curly types are very closely linked or identical.
Attachment of wild-type F factor to a specific chromosomal region in a variant strain of Escherichia coli K12: the phenomenon of episomic alternation
A variant strain of Escherichia coli K12 was obtained after ultra-violet irradiation and it was found that this strain differs from wild type in the possession of a preferred chromosomal site for the F factor.
, L ' operon : troupe de genes a expression coordonnee par un operateur
  • 1960