Some Good NewS About RumiNAtioN: tASk-FocuSed thiNkiNG AFteR FAiluRe FAcilitAteS PeRFoRmANce imPRovemeNt

  title={Some Good NewS About RumiNAtioN: tASk-FocuSed thiNkiNG AFteR FAiluRe FAcilitAteS PeRFoRmANce imPRovemeNt},
  author={Natalie J. Ciarocco and Kathleen D. Vohs and Roy F. Baumeister},
  journal={Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology},
Is there an adaptive side to rumination? We tested whether rumination that is focused on correcting past mistakes and active goal achievement could produce positive outcomes; this is in contrast to rumination that focuses on the implications of failure (i.e., state rumination) and task-irrelevant rumination. In all studies, participants received failure feedback on an initial task. A second task similar to the first provided an opportunity for improvement. Studies 1 and 2 manipulated type of… 

State and Trait Rumination Effects on Overt Attention to Reminders of Errors in a Challenging General Knowledge Retrieval Task

Results provide some support for attentional-bias models of rumination (attentional scope model, impaired disengagement hypothesis) and have implications for how even temporary states of ruminated or distraction might impact processing of academic feedback under conditions of challenge and failure.

An experimental study of the effect of rumination processing modes on approach behavior in a task involving previous failure

Previous studies have found that rumination involves thoughts that usually occur during and influence affect after experiencing failure. However, little is known about how rumination directly affects

Rumination and Rebound from Failure as a Function of Gender and Time on Task

This work examined how Brooding and Reflection rumination styles predicted students’ subjective and event-related responses (ERPs) to negative feedback, as well as use of this feedback to rebound from failure on a later surprise retest.

The “How” and the “Why” of Restoring Goal-Pursuit after a Failure

Maladaptive coping with failure can cause considerable distress and impairment. This study tested a novel cognitive strategy that induces participants to process both the value (“why”) and means

Re-examining rumination: An investigation into the relative contributions of reflective and brooding ruminative processes to problem solving

Rumination has classically been associated with depressive symptoms and is often used as a clinical indicator for depression; however, a re-evaluation has recently suggested rumination may comprise

Examining the Relation Between Academic Rumination and Achievement Goal Orientation by

Supervisory Committee Dr. Joan Martin, (Department of Educational Psychology and Leadership Studies) Supervisor Dr. John Anderson, (Department of Educational Psychology and Leadership Studies)

Joy and rigor in behavioral science


If there is a silver lining to having been tricked in an economic context, perhaps it is that one can be wiser for the experience. Presumably, people are able to learn from such transactions and



Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving.

Hypotheses about the effects of self-focused rumination on interpretations of events and interpersonal problem solving were tested in 3 studies with dysphoric and nondysphoric participants and it was shown that dysphoric participants who ruminated were more pessimistic about positive events in their future than the other 3 groups.

Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination.

The results showed that dysphoric ruminative thought is characterized by a focus on personal problems combined with a negative tone, self-criticism, and self-blame for problems as well as reduced self-confidence, optimism, and perceived control.

Dysphoric Rumination Impairs Concentration on Academic Tasks

Three studies investigated the effects of dysphoric rumination on concentration during 3 academic tasks—reading a passage from the GRE (Study 1), watching a videotaped lecture (Study 2), and

Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories.

Four studies explored the effects of self-focused rumination vs. distraction on dysphoric and nondysphoric students' retrieval of autobiographical memories and found that dysphoric ruminators spontaneously generated memories that were more negative than those of the other three groups.

The Effect of Mental Simulation on Goal-Directed Performance

Mental simulations can have beneficial effects on goal-directed effort and performance. We make a theoretical distinction between simulations of desired goals (outcome simulation) versus simulation

On the regulation of cognitive control: action orientation moderates the impact of high demands in Stroop interference tasks.

Functional differences between action- and state-oriented participants emerged especially when the task included a high proportion of congruent Stroop trials, suggesting that action-oriented individuals are better protected against goal neglect than are state- oriented individuals.

Cognitive Inflexibility Among Ruminators and Nonruminators

Dysphoric people who ruminate about their negative mood experience longer and more intense depressive episodes, yet often persist in ruminating. This study investigated whether a ruminative coping

Paradoxical effects of thought suppression.

It is suggested that attempted thought suppression has paradoxical effects as a self-control strategy, perhaps even producing the very obsession or preoccupation that it is directed against.

Do conscious thoughts cause behavior?

The evidence for conscious causation of behavior is profound, extensive, adaptive, multifaceted, and empirically strong, however, conscious causation is often indirect and delayed, and it depends on interplay with unconscious processes.

Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement.

The development of the transgression-related interpersonal motivations inventory is described--a self-report measure designed to assess the 2-component motivational system (Avoidance and Revenge) posited to underlie forgiving, which demonstrated a variety of desirable psychometric properties.