Some Global Policies for Antibiotic Resistance Depend on Legally Binding and Enforceable Commitments

@article{Behdinan2015SomeGP,
  title={Some Global Policies for Antibiotic Resistance Depend on Legally Binding and Enforceable Commitments},
  author={Asha Behdinan and Steven J. Hoffman and Mark Pearcey},
  journal={The Journal of Law, Medicine \& Ethics},
  year={2015},
  volume={43},
  pages={68 - 73}
}
To address the challenge of antibiotic resistance (ABR), the international community must ensure access, conservation and innovation of antibiotics. These goals can be significantly advanced through ten global policies that have been recommended to form part of an international legal agreement. Policies that could be central to this agreement include the establishment of standards, responsible antibiotic use regulations, and strengthening global surveillance systems. Funding for access… 

Tables from this paper

International Law Has a Role to Play in Addressing Antibiotic Resistance
TLDR
Since addressing ABR depends on near-universal and interdependent collective action across sectors, states should utilize an international legal agreement - which formally represents the strongest commitment mechanism available to them.
Strategies for achieving global collective action on antimicrobial resistance
TLDR
There are three policy components to the problem of antimicrobials – ensuring access, conservation and innovation – and the right mix of options needs to be matched with an effective forum and may need to be supported by an international legal framework.
Addressing Antibiotic Resistance Requires Robust International Accountability Mechanisms
  • S. HoffmanTrygve Ottersen
  • Political Science
    The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
  • 2015
TLDR
This article provides a menu of accountability mechanisms that facilitate transparency, oversight, complaint, and enforcement, and describes how these mechanisms can promote compliance, and identifies key considerations for a proposed international agreement on antibiotic resistance.
Much Can Be Learned about Addressing Antibiotic Resistance from Multilateral Environmental Agreements
  • S. AndresenS. Hoffman
  • Political Science
    The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
  • 2015
TLDR
More research on global strategies for achieving collective action is needed to help inform future institutional designs that are both effective and politically feasible.
Bridging the commitment-compliance gap in global health politics: Lessons from international relations for the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance
TLDR
To bridge the commitment-compliance gap, international leaders should: frame incentives to maximise interests for action, pursue enforcement mechanisms to induce state behaviour, and find opportunities for continual social learning.
Global Governance of Anti-microbial Resistance: A Legal and Regulatory Toolkit
  • C. HoTsung-Ling Lee
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Ethics and Drug Resistance: Collective Responsibility for Global Public Health
  • 2020
TLDR
This chapter has a threefold purpose: to identify regulatory principles embedded in key WHO documents relating to AMR and the GAP-AMR, to consider the legal and regulatory actions or interventions that countries could use to strengthen their regulatory lever for AMR containment, and to highlight the crucial role of the regulatory lever in enabling other levers under a whole-of-system approach.
What Will it Take to Address the Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance?
TLDR
Eleven concise articles were commissioned to explore whether ABR depended on global collective action, and if so, what tools could help states and non-state actors to achieve it.
Developing an approach to assessing the political feasibility of global collective action and an international agreement on antimicrobial resistance
TLDR
An approach to assessing whether political and stakeholder interests can align to commit to tackling AMR is described, and a typology of four country archetypes is outlined to understand whether a proposed agreement may have sufficient support to be politically feasible.
Antibiotic Resistance is a Tragedy of the Commons That Necessitates Global Cooperation
  • A. HollisPeter Maybarduk
  • Medicine
    The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
  • 2015
TLDR
To solve problems of access while offering adequate rewards for innovation, a key tool is delinking prices from payment to innovators.
Government policy interventions to reduce human antimicrobial use: A systematic review and evidence map
TLDR
This is the first study to provide policy makers with synthesized evidence on specific government policy interventions addressing AMR, and governments should ensure that AMR policy interventions are evaluated using rigorous study designs and that study results are published.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
International Law Has a Role to Play in Addressing Antibiotic Resistance
TLDR
Since addressing ABR depends on near-universal and interdependent collective action across sectors, states should utilize an international legal agreement - which formally represents the strongest commitment mechanism available to them.
Effective Global Action on Antibiotic Resistance Requires Careful Consideration of Convening Forums
  • Z. RizviS. Hoffman
  • Political Science
    The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
  • 2015
TLDR
Four different forums that states may use to develop an international legal agreement for antibiotic resistance are evaluated: (1) a self-organized venue; (2) the World Health Organization; (3) theWorld Trade Organization; and (4) the United Nations General Assembly.
Addressing Antibiotic Resistance Requires Robust International Accountability Mechanisms
  • S. HoffmanTrygve Ottersen
  • Political Science
    The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
  • 2015
TLDR
This article provides a menu of accountability mechanisms that facilitate transparency, oversight, complaint, and enforcement, and describes how these mechanisms can promote compliance, and identifies key considerations for a proposed international agreement on antibiotic resistance.
An international legal framework to address antimicrobial resistance
TLDR
The possible role that a binding international legal framework can play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance is outlined, which requires new coordination and financing mechanisms to be organized globally.
What Will it Take to Address the Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance?
TLDR
Eleven concise articles were commissioned to explore whether ABR depended on global collective action, and if so, what tools could help states and non-state actors to achieve it.
Assessing Implementation Mechanisms for an International Agreement on Research and Development for Health Products
TLDR
The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that is both sustainable and acceptable to those involved.
Improving antibiotic prescribing for children in the resource-poor setting
TLDR
This paper provides an overview of antibiotic prescribing issues in low- and middle-income countries, and considers future developments that may improve LMIC antibiotic prescribing.
Assessing the Expected Impact of Global Health Treaties: Evidence From 90 Quantitative Evaluations.
TLDR
It appears treaties consistently succeed in shaping economic matters and consistently fail in achieving social progress.
Empirical impact evaluation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel in Australia, Canada, UK and USA
TLDR
There is a gap between awareness of the Code among stakeholders at global forums and the awareness and behaviour of national and sub-national actors in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States of America, which are the English-speaking developed countries with the greatest number of migrant health workers.
...
...