Some Effects of a Hallucinogenic Compound (Cyprenorphine Hydrochloride; M 285) on the Light Reinforced Behaviour of Rats

  title={Some Effects of a Hallucinogenic Compound (Cyprenorphine Hydrochloride; M 285) on the Light Reinforced Behaviour of Rats},
  author={Geoff Lowe and D. I. Williams},
CYPRENORPHINE hydrochloride (M 285)1 is a morphine antagonist with greater potency (about 35 times) parenterally and longer duration of action than nalorphine. It has been surveyed for psychotomimetic effects in groups of five to ten pre-operative patients in the USA. After an intramuscular dose of 0.5 mg/kg about half claimed a “crazy feeling” or “seeing things”, usually with their eyes closed, and an irrational fear. These effects were more severe after 1.0 mg intramuscularly with distinct… 
Effects of Cyprenorphine Hydrochloride on Sensory Reinforcement in the Rat
This drug (in common with other hallucinogenic agents) may raise the arousal level of an animal that is relatively deprived visually, so that it needs very little further stimulation.
The effect of LSD-25 on light-reinforced behaviour in the rat
Changes in sensory stimulation were less rewarding for animals whose arousal level, it is argued, has been raised by LSD-25 than for animals injected with saline, and results were interpreted in terms of an arousal theory.
Operant responding for a visual reinforcer in rats is enhanced by noncontingent nicotine: implications for nicotine self-administration and reinforcement
Nicotine influences operant behavior in two ways: by acting as a primary reinforcer when it is contingent upon behavior, and by directly potentiating the reinforcing properties of other stimuli through a nonassociative mechanism.
Drugs of abuse in the future.
The variety of drugs currently involved in the drug abuse problem is very extensive. As these materials become better defined and their use better controlled, they will be replaced with substitute
Light reinforcement, noise and arousal level.
The arousal hypothesis is supported by the finding that the reinforcing effect of the light can be modified by the level of auditory stimulation maintained before testing, if the auditory stimulation is assumed to change the basic arousal level of the organism.
Influence of cue‐conditioning on acquisition, maintenance and relapse of cocaine intravenous self‐administration
Analysis of the effects of a drug‐associated cue light on acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of intravenous cocaine self‐administration shows that cocaine‐associated explicit cues do not directly interfere with the reinforcing effects of the drug.


Compounds possessing Morphine-antagonizing or Powerful Analgesic Properties
A most interesting series of derivatives arises when R1 is cyclopropylmethyl and forms the subject of this communication.
Differential reinforcing effects of steady and flickering light on bar pressing in the rat
The present study, using a 15-rrtin pretest period, showed higher response rates for steady light than for flickering light, which cannot be explained in terms of the parameters of the reinforcing stimulus.
Light Reinforcement following Pre-Adaptation in the Illuminated Test Apparatus
The failure to demonstrate a light reinforcement effect in Group CL, despite the fact that on Day 3 the light onset did constitute a change from the stimulus condition of the dark box, provides more impressive evidence for scanning theory.
Bar pressing in the rat as a function of variable visual stimulation
It was found that rate of bar pressing was greater when a flickering rather than a steady light was contingent upon a response, predicted by a ‘stimulus change’ hypothesis, although it is not inconsistent with an explanation in terms of ‘scanning’.