Some Aspects of the Schooling Behaviour of Fish

  title={Some Aspects of the Schooling Behaviour of Fish},
  author={Miles Hugh Alston Keenleyside},
The purpose of this paper is to present a hypothesis on the nature of the schooling behaviour of fish based on an ethological investigation of schooling. Recognizing the disadvantages of a limited amount of data and of the use of different species for different parts of the study, the following tentative picture is suggested. Schooling may be considered an instinct as defined by TINBERGEN and is at a relatively low level in the hierarchical organization of behaviour. It has typical appetitive… 
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  • Education, Environmental Science
    Physiological Zoology
  • 1961
In a few preliminary experiments on the role of environmental conditions and of early experience with species mates, four fry (isolates) were successfully reared away from species mates to schooling age and each was attracted to the school and followed it.
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The Development of Schooling Behavior in Fishes
  • E. Shaw
  • Psychology
    Physiological Zoology
  • 1960
A clearer understanding of the specific factors of attraction and orientation which result in continuous schooling was obtained by observing the first approaches and responses of fry to one another and the subsequent events which led to schooling orientation.
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  • W. Rowland
  • Psychology
    Environmental Biology of Fishes
  • 2004
This paper reviews the variety of approaches available to fish ethologists to study the role of visual cues in fish behavior. Examples of studies that have used live fish, mirror images, dummies
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The hypothesis presented is that the development of the octavolateralis system may have initiated, or been a factor in, the evolutionary development of synchronized group locomotion, eventually leading to schooling behaviour.
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Models of swarming (based on avoidance, alignment and attraction) produce patterns of behaviour also seen in schools of fish. However, the significance of such similarities has been questioned,


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An experimental study of the behavior of a single species was undertaken at the New York Aquarium, finding that certain species incline to an extremely quiescent state, and some group themselves in closely compact aggregates.
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In verifying Mabius' work, Triplett (1901o) placed two perch in one end of an aquarium and separated them from minnows in the other end by a glass partition, and found that this conditioned-response technique has been fruitfully used in most of the subsequent experiments in the behavior of fishes.
Appetites and Aversions as Constituents of Instincts.
  • W. Craig
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1917
I think it probable that some of the dove's instincts include an element which is even a tropism as described by Loeb, but with few if any exceptions among the instincts of doves, this reflex action constitufes only a part of each instinct in which it is present.
Some Comments On Conflict and Thwarting in Animals
The aim of this paper is to present some new comments on the behaviour of animals when their drives are thwarted or in conflict. The paper has two main sections. The first reviews the types of
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  • R. Hinde
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B - Biological Sciences
  • 1954
It is suggested that at least two different processes are involved in the waning of the response; one of these is specific to the response and subject to rapid recovery, while the other is Specific to the stimulus and produces long-term effects.
Some observations on schooling in fish
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The investigations reported here represent a continuation of research on one of the aspects of the mass physiology of animals-the effect of grouping on the locomotor activity of fishes (Shlaifer, '38, '39), and it is demonstrated that vision is the primary sensory modality in the phenomenon.
The Behaviour of Chum, Pink and Coho Salmon in Relation to their Seaward Migration
In fresh water, chum and pink salmon fry form schools or mills, are constantly active both day and night, show positive rheotaxis and move into fast water, and coho smolts, in contrast to the fry, demonstrate a lowered threshold for stimulation both day or night, a tendency to aggregate and a lessening in territory behaviour.
Hostile, Sexual, and Other Social Behaviour Patterns of the Spice Finch (Lonchura Punctulata) in Captivity
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