Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey

  title={Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey},
  author={Zeev Pancer and Chris T. Amemiya and G{\"o}tz R. A. Ehrhardt and Jill Ceitlin and G. Larry Gartland and Max D. Cooper},
Although jawless vertebrates are apparently capable of adaptive immune responses, they have not been found to possess the recombinatorial antigen receptors shared by all jawed vertebrates. Our search for the phylogenetic roots of adaptive immunity in the lamprey has instead identified a new type of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) composed of highly diverse leucine-rich repeats (LRR) sandwiched between amino- and carboxy-terminal LRRs. An invariant stalk region tethers the VLRs to the cell… 
Evolution of variable lymphocyte receptor B antibody loci in jawless vertebrates
The composition of the VLRB locus in different jawless vertebrates to elucidate its configuration and evolutionary modification is analyzed, which reveals evolutionary modifications of the lamprey V lRB genes, elucidates the organization of the complex VL RB locus, and provides a comprehensive catalog of donor VLRR cassettes in sea lamprey and Japanese lamprey.
Variable lymphocyte receptors in hagfish.
  • Z. Pancer, N. Saha, M. Cooper
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
Jawless-fish mode of VLR diversification starkly contrasts with the rearrangement of Ig V(D)J gene segments used by all jawed vertebrates to produce diverse repertoires of T and B lymphocyte antigen receptors.
Diversity and Function of Adaptive Immune Receptors in a Jawless Vertebrate
These findings reveal that two strikingly different modes of antigen recognition through rearranged lymphocyte receptors have evolved in the jawless and jawed vertebrates.
Dual Nature of the Adaptive Immune System in Lampreys
It is shown that in sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) VLRA and VLRB anticipatory receptors are expressed by separate lymphocyte populations by monoallelic VL RA or VL RB assembly, together with expression of cytosine deaminase 1 or 2 (CDA2), respectively.
Déjà vu: the identity of a third lineage of lymphocytes in lampreys
Similar to jawed vertebrates equipped with B cells, αβ T cells and γδ T cells, lampreys have one B- cell-like lineage and two T-cell-like lineages, providing yet another piece of evidence supporting the similarity of the two forms of adaptive immune systems.
Evolution of adaptive immunity: implications of a third lymphocyte lineage in lampreys.
  • N. Kishishita, F. Nagawa
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2014
The existence of three major lymphocyte lineages and their development in lampreys, parallels the mammalian adaptive immune system and suggests that these three cell lineages were present in the common vertebrate ancestor approximately 500 million years ago.
Structural insights into the evolution of the adaptive immune system: the variable lymphocyte receptors of jawless vertebrates
The independent evolution approximately 500 million years ago of LRR-based and Ig-based receptors of comparable diversity and antigen-binding properties provides evidence for the survival value of adaptive immunity in vertebrates.
Variable Lymphocyte Receptors in Jawless Vertebrates: Illuminating the Origin and Early Evolution of Adaptive Immunity
Despite differences in molecular architecture, the parallel ‘two-arms’ of the AIS evolved within the context of preexisting innate immunity and maintained over a long period of time in jawed and jawless vertebrates, respectively, as a consequence of powerful and enduring evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors.
Evolution and diversification of lamprey antigen receptors: evidence for involvement of an AID-APOBEC family cytosine deaminase
Lamprey lymphocytes express two putative deaminases of the AID-APOBEC family that may be involved in VLR diversification, as indicated by in vitro mutagenesis and recombination assays.


Evolution of antigen binding receptors.
Acquisition of large amounts of structural data for the antigen binding receptors that are found in a variety of jawed vertebrates has defined shared characteristics that provide unique insight into the distant origins of the rearranging gene systems and their relationships to both adaptive and innate recognition processes.
Lamprey lymphocyte-like cells express homologs of genes involved in immunologically relevant activities of mammalian lymphocytes
The presence of these genes in the lamprey genome and their expression in lymphocyte-like cells support the notion that these cells perform many of the functions of gnathostome lymphocytes, and reopens the question of the stage jawless fishes reached in the evolution of their immune system.
Isolation and characterization of lymphocyte-like cells from a lamprey
The data suggest that the evolution of lymphocytes in the lamprey has reached a stage poised for the emergence of adaptive immunity, and numerous genes homologous to those predominantly or characteristically expressed in mammalian lymphocytes are identified.
Identification of Two Ikaros‐like Transcription Factors in Lamprey
The jawless Agnatha (lampreys and hagfishes) represent the phylogenetically oldest order of vertebrates that are believed to lack the adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. In order to search
Do lampreys have lymphocytes? The Spi evidence.
Evidence is provided that the lampreys express a member of the purine box 1 (PU.1)/spleen focus-forming virus integration B (Spi-B) gene family known to be critically and specifically involved in the differentiation of lymphocytes in jawed vertebrates.
Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria.
The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, and the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates, suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.
The architecture of variant surface glycoprotein gene expression sites in Trypanosoma brucei.