Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey

@article{Pancer2004SomaticDO,
  title={Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey},
  author={Zeev Pancer and Chris T. Amemiya and G{\"o}tz R. A. Ehrhardt and Jill Ceitlin and G. Larry Gartland and Max D. Cooper},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={430},
  pages={174-180}
}
Although jawless vertebrates are apparently capable of adaptive immune responses, they have not been found to possess the recombinatorial antigen receptors shared by all jawed vertebrates. Our search for the phylogenetic roots of adaptive immunity in the lamprey has instead identified a new type of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) composed of highly diverse leucine-rich repeats (LRR) sandwiched between amino- and carboxy-terminal LRRs. An invariant stalk region tethers the VLRs to the cell… 
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The composition of the VLRB locus in different jawless vertebrates to elucidate its configuration and evolutionary modification is analyzed, which reveals evolutionary modifications of the lamprey V lRB genes, elucidates the organization of the complex VL RB locus, and provides a comprehensive catalog of donor VLRR cassettes in sea lamprey and Japanese lamprey.
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Evolution and diversification of lamprey antigen receptors: evidence for involvement of an AID-APOBEC family cytosine deaminase
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Lamprey lymphocytes express two putative deaminases of the AID-APOBEC family that may be involved in VLR diversification, as indicated by in vitro mutagenesis and recombination assays.
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