Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey

@article{Pancer2004SomaticDO,
  title={Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey},
  author={Zeev Pancer and Chris T. Amemiya and G{\"o}tz R A Ehrhardt and Jill Ceitlin and G. Larry Gartland and Max D. Cooper},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={430},
  pages={174-180}
}
Although jawless vertebrates are apparently capable of adaptive immune responses, they have not been found to possess the recombinatorial antigen receptors shared by all jawed vertebrates. Our search for the phylogenetic roots of adaptive immunity in the lamprey has instead identified a new type of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) composed of highly diverse leucine-rich repeats (LRR) sandwiched between amino- and carboxy-terminal LRRs. An invariant stalk region tethers the VLRs to the cell… Expand
The adaptive immune system of sea lamprey
TLDR
It is shown that lamprey and hagfish lymphocytes generate a large repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) by randomly assembling leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) gene segments, and the cellular and humoral responses of lamprey to different immunogens are characterized. Expand
Variable lymphocyte receptors in hagfish.
  • Z. Pancer, N. Saha, +4 authors M. Cooper
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
TLDR
Jawless-fish mode of VLR diversification starkly contrasts with the rearrangement of Ig V(D)J gene segments used by all jawed vertebrates to produce diverse repertoires of T and B lymphocyte antigen receptors. Expand
Variable Lymphocyte Receptors: The Basis of Adaptive Immunity in Jawless Vertebrates
TLDR
Differences in gene expression, localization, and degree of diversity suggest that the VLRA + and VLRC + lineages represent separate lineages of cellular immunity. Expand
Organization of lamprey variable lymphocyte receptor C locus and repertoire development
TLDR
This analysis indicates that VLRC sequences are well conserved in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), L. camtschaticum, and European brook lampreys (Lampetra planeri), and provides insight into the unique molecular strategies used for VL RC gene assembly and repertoire diversification. Expand
Diversity and Function of Adaptive Immune Receptors in a Jawless Vertebrate
TLDR
These findings reveal that two strikingly different modes of antigen recognition through rearranged lymphocyte receptors have evolved in the jawless and jawed vertebrates. Expand
Dual Nature of the Adaptive Immune System in Lampreys
TLDR
It is shown that in sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) VLRA and VLRB anticipatory receptors are expressed by separate lymphocyte populations by monoallelic VL RA or VL RB assembly, together with expression of cytosine deaminase 1 or 2 (CDA2), respectively. Expand
Déjà vu: the identity of a third lineage of lymphocytes in lampreys
  • M. Kasahara
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Immunology and cell biology
  • 2013
TLDR
Similar to jawed vertebrates equipped with B cells, αβ T cells and γδ T cells, lampreys have one B- cell-like lineage and two T-cell-like lineages, providing yet another piece of evidence supporting the similarity of the two forms of adaptive immune systems. Expand
Selection of the lamprey VLRC antigen receptor repertoire
TLDR
Significant signatures for selection of the VLRC receptors that are expressed by one of the T-cell lineages of lamprey are identified; selection concerns the length of the receptor molecules and their N-terminal sequence diversity, and these findings pave the way to identifying the mechanistic basis of selection. Expand
Antigen-receptor genes of the agnathan lamprey are assembled by a process involving copy choice
TLDR
It is reported that lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) assemble their VLR genes by a process involving 'copy choice', and genomic organization permits initiation of copying anywhere in an LRR-encoding module for the generation of various hybrid LRRs. Expand
VLR-based adaptive immunity.
TLDR
The discovery of VLRs in agnathans illuminates the origins of adaptive immunity in early vertebrates and suggests reciprocal expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved interleukins and chemokines possibly underlie cell-cell interactions during an immune response. Expand
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