Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?

@article{Blair2001SomaticMA,
  title={Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?},
  author={Robert James R. Blair and E. Colledge and Derek G. V. Mitchell},
  journal={Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
  year={2001},
  volume={29},
  pages={499-511}
}
This study investigated the performance of boys with psychopathic tendencies and comparison boys, aged 9 to 17 years, on two tasks believed to be sensitive to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex functioning. Fifty-one boys were divided into two groups according to the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD, P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, in press) and presented with two tasks. The tasks were the gambling task (A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) and the Intradimensional… 
Psychopathy, risk taking, and attention: a differentiated test of the somatic marker hypothesis.
TLDR
No general relation between psychopathy and gambling task performance was found, however, psychopathic inmates with low attention scores gambled worse than did the attentive ones, and in nonpsychopathic individuals, attention had no impact.
Dysfunctions of Medial and Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex in Psychopathy
  • R. Blair
  • Psychology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2007
TLDR
It will be argued that the developmental origins of psychopathy do not lie in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction, because the key functional impairments seen in psychopathy are associated with amygdala damage, not with OFC damage.
Adolescents' performance on the Iowa Gambling Task: implications for the development of decision making and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
TLDR
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex or its connections are functionally maturing during adolescence in a manner that can be distinguished from maturation of other prefrontal regions, and development of these functions may continue into young adulthood.
Neurocognitive processes in instrumental learning, response reversal, decision-making and psychopathy.
TLDR
This thesis investigates the neurocognitive systems involved in emotional processing, learning, and decision-making and considers the implications of dysfunction in these systems for psychopathy and finds impaired performance in individuals with psychopathy.
Response reversal and children with psychopathic tendencies: success is a function of salience of contingency change.
  • S. Budhani, R. Blair
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 2005
TLDR
This work investigates the performance of children with psychopathic tendencies on a novel probabilistic response reversal task involving four conditions with gradated reward-punishment contingencies and suggests that this data is consistent with suggestions of subtle orbital frontal cortex impairment in children withpsychopathic tendencies.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 72 REFERENCES
Cognitive Impairment and Its Relationship to Psychopathic Tendencies in Children with Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties
TLDR
There was a significant association between performance on the card playing tasks and the moral/conventional distinction and the results are interpreted within the response set modulation and violence inhibition mechanism models and by reference to recent work at the anatomical level.
Ventral frontal deficits in psychopathy: Neuropsychological test findings
Moral reasoning and the child with psychopathic tendencies
Neurocognitive explanations of the antisocial personality disorders
TLDR
This paper aims to provide an understanding of the antisocial personality disorders (APDs) that is informed by developmental cognitive neuroscience and concludes that the development of the APDs is associated with an impairment in emotional processing and that this impairment may be due to dysfunction within a circuit which involves the amygdala.
Impaired social response reversal. A case of 'acquired sociopathy'.
TLDR
A patient who, following trauma to the right frontal region, including the orbitofrontal cortex, presented with 'acquired sociopathy' is reported, suggesting that J.S.'s impairment is due to a reduced ability to generate expectations of others' negative emotional reactions, in particular anger.
Psychopathy and conduct problems in children.
TLDR
Factor analysis of a measure of psychopathy was conducted in a sample of 95 clinic-referred children, suggesting that psychopathic personality features and conduct problems are independent, yet interacting, constructs in children, analogous to findings in the adult literature.
A Selective Impairment in the Processing of Sad and Fearful Expressions in Children with Psychopathic Tendencies
TLDR
Children with psychopathic tendencies presented with selective impairments needed significantly more stages before they could successfully recognise the sad expressions and even when the fearful expressions were at full intensity were significantly more likely to mistake them for another expression.
Disinhibitory psychopathology: a new perspective and a model for research.
TLDR
The syndrome produced by lesion of the septum in animals can serve as a functional research model of human disinhibitory psychopathology and a program of experimentati on utilizing this animal model is outlined.
...
...