Solving the Paradox of the Solar Sodium D_{1} Line Polarization.

  title={Solving the Paradox of the Solar Sodium D\_\{1\} Line Polarization.},
  author={Ernest Alsina Ballester and Luca Belluzzi and Javier Trujillo Bueno},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={127 8},
Twenty-five years ago, enigmatic linear polarization signals were discovered in the core of the sodium D_{1} line. The only explanation that could be found implied that the solar chromosphere is practically unmagnetized, in contradiction with other evidences. This opened a paradox that has challenged physicists for many years. Here we present its solution, demonstrating that these polarization signals can be properly explained in the presence of magnetic fields in the gauss range. This result… Expand

Figures from this paper


Magnetic Diagnostics of the Solar Chromosphere with the Mg II h-k Lines
We investigated the formation of the Mg II h-k doublet in a weakly magnetized atmosphere (20-100 G) using a newly developed numerical code for polarized RT in a plane-parallel geometry, whichExpand
A Key Physical Mechanism for Understanding the Enigmatic Linear Polarization of the Solar Ba II and Na I D 1 Lines
The linearly polarized spectrum of the solar limb radiation produced by scattering processes is of great diagnostic potential for exploring the magnetism of the solar atmosphere. This spectrum showsExpand
The Magnetic Sensitivity of the Second Solar Spectrum
This paper reviews some of the developments that over the last 10 years have allowed us to go from deciphering the physical origin of several of the enigmatic features of the second solar spectrum toExpand
Center-to-limb variation of the enigmatic Na bt I D_1 and D_2 polarization profiles
The remarkable polarization structure of the Na i D1 and D2 lines that is due to coherent scattering has remained an enigma, since it has not yet been possible to find an explanation that isExpand
Atomic Polarization and the Hanle Effect
This article presents an introduction to optical pumping, atomic polarization and the Hanle effect in weakly magnetized stellar atmospheres. Although the physical processes and the theoreticalExpand
Evidence against turbulent and canopy-like magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere
Measurements of the degree of polarization of light in the spectral lines emitted by gas near the Sun's limb (its outer edge) can be used to investigate the electron densities and magnetic fieldExpand
Magnetic Sensitivity in the Wing Scattering Polarization Signals of the Hydrogen Lyman-α Line of the Solar Disk Radiation
The linear polarization produced by scattering processes in the hydrogen Lyman alpha line of the solar disk radiation is a key observable for probing the chromosphere-corona transition region (TR)Expand
The formation of helioseismology lines. III : Partial redistribution effects in weak solar resonance lines
This paper investigates the formation of the Na I D 2 , K I λ769.9 nm and Ba II λ455.4 nm resonance lines in the solar atmosphere allowing for partial frequency redistribution (PRD). We show that theExpand
Physics of Polarized Scattering at Multi-level Atomic Systems
The symmetric peak observed in linear polarization in the core of the solar sodium D1 line at 5896 A has remained enigmatic since its discovery nearly two decades ago. One reason is that the theoryExpand
We highlight the main results of a three-dimensional (3D) multilevel radiative transfer investigation about the solar disk-center polarization of the Ca ii 8542 A line. First, through the use of a 3DExpand