Solutions for elephant Loxodonta africana crop raiding in northern Botswana: moving away from symptomatic approaches

  title={Solutions for elephant Loxodonta africana crop raiding in northern Botswana: moving away from symptomatic approaches},
  author={Timothy P. Jackson and Sibangani Mosojane and Sam M. Ferreira and Rudi J. van Aarde},
  pages={83 - 91}
Abstract Conflict between people and elephants in Africa is widespread yet many solutions target the symptoms, rather than the underlying causes, of this conflict. To manage this conflict better the underlying causes of the problem need to be examined. Here we examine factors underlying spatial use by elephants and people along the Okavango Panhandle in Ngamiland, northern Botswana, to provide ways to address the causes of the conflict between elephants and people. We found that (1) elephant… 
The role of elephant Loxodonta africana pathways as a spatial variable in crop-raiding location
Abstract Short-range elephant Loxodonta africana movements were examined in a heterogeneous landscape mosaic of settlements, crop fields and remnant forest in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia. We explored
Fences and artificial water affect African savannah elephant movement patterns
Seasonal and spatial vulnerability to agricultural damage by elephants in the western Serengeti, Tanzania
Historical records of crop damage by elephants in the western Serengeti can provide protected area managers and regional government agencies with important insights into the distribution of conflict across the landscape and between seasons, and can guide efforts to optimize resource allocation and future land use planning efforts.
Perceptions and realities of elephant crop raiding and mitigation methods
Crop raiding by African elephants (Loxodonta africana) jeopardizes human livelihoods and undermines conservation efforts. Addressing this issue is particularly important in subsistence farms adjacent
Determinants of protected area boundary crossings by savannah elephants, Loxodonta africana
  • T. Lee
  • Environmental Science
  • 2013
When elephants leave primary protected areas (PPAs), such as national parks and game reserves, they may come into conflict with people residing on the adjoining land. In this study, I attempted to
The consequences of poaching and anthropogenic change for forest elephants
Conservationists are encouraged to look beyond documenting forest elephant population decline and address the causes of these declines when developing conversation strategies and lessons learned from West African elephant population loss and habitat fragmentation should be used to inform strategies for land-use planning and managing human-elephant interactions.
How do land-use practices affect human—elephant conflict in nepal?
Asian elephants Elephas maximus are an endangered species and human—elephant conflict (HEC) is the major threat to their survival. HEC causes crop and property loss and occasionally results in the
Determining baselines for human-elephant conflict: A matter of time
The level of reported crop raiding by elephants in the eastern Panhandle appears to have decreased since 2008, which seems to be related to the reduction in agricultural land allocated to people in recent years, more than with human and elephant population size.
Prevalence of human elephant conflicts in Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya: Current opinions of local community
Elephants capture the affection of people due to its size, social behavior and its flagship role in tourism. But it also elicits animosity because of the damages and insecurity it causes to local
The 2020 elephant die-off in Botswana
A broader understanding of the ecological and conservation issues speaks to elephant management across the Kavango–Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area that extends across Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.


Rules of habitat use by elephants Loxodonta africana in southern Africa: insights for regional management
Abstract Managers in southern Africa are concerned that continually increasing elephant populations will degrade ecosystems. Culling, translocation and birth control are flawed solutions. An
Sexual segregation in habitat use by elephants in Chobe National Park, Botswana
We report on a study conducted on free-ranging African elephants in the woodlands of northern Botswana. We compared bull groups and family units with regard to (1) their patterns of habitat use and
Coexistence between People and Elephants in African Savannas
Abstract: The decline in the range and numbers of elephants as a result of expanding human activity in Africa is recognized as one of the continent’s more serious conservation problems. Understanding
Predicting spatial aspects of human–elephant conflict
1. Human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Africa occurs wherever these two species coincide, and poses serious challenges to wildlife managers, local communities and elephants alike. Mitigation requires a
Conservation science and elephant management in southern Africa
This approach avoids reducing numbers directly and addresses patterns of spatial use to reduce local impacts and limit regional numbers and emphasizes the cause of the elephant problem and focuses on a systemic rather than a symptomatic treatment.
Conflict between humans and elephants on private land in northern Kenya
About 3000 elephants live in the Laikipia/Sambnru region of northern Kenya – the largest remaining population outside the country's formal protected areas. The elephants occasionally kill or injure
Determinants of human–elephant conflict in a land‐use mosaic
A statistic to quantify problem elephant activity in Africa is proposed which can be used to compare the intensity of problem incidents between different ecosystems at different times: ‘elephant incidents per square kilometre of human settlement area per year’.
Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya
Variable levels of uptake among the participating farmers made it difficult to draw clear conclusions from the trials, but participating farmers were positive about the deterrent effect of the tools introduced, corroborated by their willingness to make financial commitments towards sustaining future trials.
Temporal trends in elephant Loxodonta africana numbers and densities in northern Botswana: is the population really increasing?
An equilibrium model best explained the variance in dry season estimates of elephant numbers for the complete time series, suggesting that apparent density-dependence could be disrupted by any artificial reduction of numbers through culling as a management option in northern Botswana.