CRAMP was identified from a cDNA clone derived from mouse femoral marrow cells as a member of cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides. This peptide shows potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria but no hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. CRAMP was known to cause rapid permeabilization of the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. In this study, the structure of CRAMP in TFE/H2O (1 : 1, v/v) solution was determined by CD and NMR spectroscopy. CD spectra showed that CRAMP adopts a mainly alpha-helical conformation in TFE/H2O solution, DPC micelles, SDS micelles and liposomes, whereas it has a random structure in aqueous solution. The tertiary structure of CRAMP in TFE/H2O (1 : 1, v/v), as determined by NMR spectroscopy, consists of two amphipathic alpha-helices from Leu4 to Lys10 and from Gly16 to Leu33. These two helices are connected by a flexible region from Gly11 to Gly16. Previous analysis of series of fragments composed of various portion of CRAMP revealed that an 18-residue fragment with the sequence from Gly16 to Leu33 was found to retain antibacterial activity. Therefore, the amphipathic alpha-helical region from Gly16 to Leu33 of CRAMP plays important roles in spanning the lipid bilayers as well as its antibiotic activity. Based on this structure, novel antibiotic peptides having strong antibiotic activity, with no hemolytic effect will be developed.