Solitude Experiences: Varieties, Settings, and Individual Differences

@article{Long2003SolitudeEV,
  title={Solitude Experiences: Varieties, Settings, and Individual Differences},
  author={Christopher R. Long and M Isabelle Seburn and James R. Averill and Thomas A. More},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  year={2003},
  volume={29},
  pages={578 - 583}
}
Solitude may be positive or negative, depending on situational and personal factors. From prior research, nine types of solitude were identified. Based on data from a questionnaire study of undergraduate participants, factor analysis suggests that these nine types can be reduced to three dimensions, two positive and one negative. These are, respectively, Inner-Directed Solitude (characterized by self-discovery and inner peace), Outer-Directed Solitude (characterized by intimacy and spirituality… 

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