Soldier production in a stingless bee depends on rearing location and nurse behaviour

  title={Soldier production in a stingless bee depends on rearing location and nurse behaviour},
  author={Francisca H. I. D. Segers and Cristiano Menezes and Ayrton Vollet-Neto and D Lambert and Christoph Gr{\"u}ter},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
The spectacular morphological variation among workers of certain ant and termite species has fascinated evolutionary biologists since Darwin. In some species, environmental triggers induce larvae to develop into different phenotypes, e.g. minor or major workers (soldiers). Recently, the first soldier subcaste was discovered in a bee, the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula. In contrast to ants, which raise their offspring by progressively feeding larvae until the pupal stage, T. angustula… 
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The University of Chicago Soldiers in a Stingless Bee : Work Rate and Task Repertoire Suggest They Are an Elite Force Author ( s ) :
The first test of the “rare specialist” hypothesis in a eusocial bee is reported, and it is found that soldiers worked more and performed a greater variety of tasks than other workers, particularly early in life.
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  • 2004
The presence of citral, released by Lestrimelitta limao during the raids, leads to a rapid increase in the number of hovering guard bees in front of T. angustula nests, which suggests that the defense behavior in T.Angustula has evolved under the pressure of L. limao raids and that citral functions in the nest as an alarm kairomone.