Solar Physics at the Kodaikanal Observatory: A Historical Perspective

  title={Solar Physics at the Kodaikanal Observatory: A Historical Perspective},
  author={Siraj S. Hasan and Dipankar C. V. Mallik and S. P. Bagare and S. P. Rajaguru},
  journal={arXiv: History and Philosophy of Physics},
The Kodaikanal Observatory traces its origins to the East India Company, which started an observatory in Madras “for promoting the knowledge of astronomy, geography, and navigation in India.” Observations began in 1787 at the initiative of William Petrie, an officer of the Company, with the use of two 3-in achromatic telescopes, two astronomical clocks with compound pendulums, and a transit instrument. By the early nineteenth century, the Madras Observatory had already established a reputation… 
Charles Michie Smith - founder of the Kodaikanal (Solar Physics) Observatory and beginnings of physical astronomy in India
It has been about 115 years since the establishment of Kodaikanal Observatory as an extension of the original Madras Observatory, which has evolved into the present Indian Institute of Astrophysics
Analysis of Solar Hemispheric Chromosphere Properties using the Kodaikanal Observatory Ca–K Index
The Kodaikanal Observatory has provided long-term synoptic observations of chromospheric activities in the Ca ii K line (393.34 nm) since 1907. This article investigates temporal and periodic
Optical instrumentation for chromospheric monitoring during solar cycle 25 at Paris and Côte d’Azur observatories
We present the observing program proposed by Paris and Côte d’Azur Observatories for monitoring solar activity during the upcoming cycle 25 and providing near real time images and movies of the
Correlation Between Sunspot Number and Ca ii K Emission Index
Long-term synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca ii K constitute a fundamental database for a variety of retrospective analyses of the state of the solar magnetism. Synoptic Ca ii K
Kodaikanal digitized white-light data archive (1921–2011): Analysis of various solar cycle features
Context. Long-term sunspot observations are key to understanding and predicting the solar activities and its effects on space weather. Consistent observations, which are crucial for long-term
Solar-Cycle Characteristics in Kodaikanal Sunspot Area: North–South Asymmetry, Phase Distribution and Gnevyshev Gap
Solar activity is asymmetric in the two hemispheres in almost all cycles. This asymmetry is observed both in cycle amplitude and period. We have used about 90 years of sunspot-area data from the
The New 2018 Version of the Meudon Spectroheliograph
Daily full-disk observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere started at the Meudon Observatory in 1908. After a review of the scientific context and the historical background, we describe


Weak Infrared Molecular Lines Reveal Rapid Outflow in Cool Magnetic Sunspot Penumbral Fibrils
New imaging spectropolarimetric observations of the Evershed flow in sunspot penumbrae using weak infrared molecular absorption lines are presented. A plane-polar coordinate system in the sunspot