Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum

@article{Shindell2001SolarFO,
  title={Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum},
  author={Drew T. Shindell and Gavin A. Schmidt and Michael Everett Mann and David Rind and Anne Waple},
  journal={Science},
  year={2001},
  volume={294},
  pages={2149 - 2152}
}
We examine the climate response to solar irradiance changes between the late 17th-century Maunder Minimum and the late 18th century. Global average temperature changes are small (about 0.3° to 0.4°C) in both a climate model and empirical reconstructions. However, regional temperature changes are quite large. In the model, these occur primarily through a forced shift toward the low index state of the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation as solar irradiance decreases. This leads to… 

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