Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: microstructure and in vitro behaviour.
In this paper, hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube/titania (HA-CNT/TiO(2)) double layer coatings were successfully developed on titanium (Ti) substrates intended for biomedical applications. A TiO(2) coating was firstly developed by anodization to improve bonding between HA and Ti, and then the layer of HA and CNTs was coated on the surface by the sol-gel process to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of Ti. The surfaces of double layer coatings were uniform and crack-free with a thickness of about 7 μm. The bonding strength of the HA-CNT/TiO(2) coating was higher than that of the pure HA and HA-CNT coatings. Additionally, in vitro cell experiments showed that CNTs promoted the adhesion of preosteoblasts on the HA-CNT/TiO(2) double layer coatings. These unique surfaces combined with the osteoconductive properties of HA exhibited the excellent mechanical properties of CNTs. Therefore, the developed HA-CNT/TiO(2) coatings on Ti substrates might be a promising material for bone replacement.