An experiment aimed at investigating the potential of ENVISAT/ASAR in measuring soil moisture is described in this paper. Two test areas were chosen as test sites: Montespertoli and Alessandria, in Central and Northern Italy, respectively. After a preliminary analysis of the direct relationship between the backscattering coefficient at C-band and the soil moisture content of individual fields, a Bayesian approach was attempted for retrieving soil moisture. To obtain a statistically significant data set, simulations performed with the Integral Equation Model were added to experimental data. Moreover, an Artificial Neural Network was tested on Alessandria area.